Unit 12 Terms
Psychological Disorder: Deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional patterns of thoughts, feelings, or behaviors.
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A psychological disorder marked by the appearance by after 7 of one or more of three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
Medical Model: The concept that diseases, in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital.
DSM-IV-TR: The American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, updated as a 2000 “text revision,” a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders.
Anxiety Disorders: Psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder: An anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal.
Panic Disorder: An anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episode of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations.
Phobia: An anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object, activity, or situation.
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD): An anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions).
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): Psychological stress disorder characterized by episodes of anxiety, sleeplessness, and nightmares resulting from some disturbing event in the past.
Post-Traumatic Growth: Refers to the positive psychological change experienced as a result of the struggle with highly challenging life circumstances.
Somatoform Disorder: Psychological disorder in which the symptoms take a somato (bodily) form without apparent physical cause. Con disorder/Hypo
Conversion Disorder: A rare somatoform disorder in which a person experiences very specific genuine physical symptoms for which no physiological basis can be found.
Hypochondriasis: A somatoform disorder in which a person interprets normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease.
Dissociative Disorders: Disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (disassociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings.
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID): A rare disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. Formerly called multiple personalities disorder.
Mood Disorders: Psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes. MDD, mania, bipolar.
Major Depressive Disorder: A mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or a medical condition, two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities.
Mania: A mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state.
Bipolar Disorder: A mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania. Formerly called manic-depressive-disorder.
Schizophrenia: A group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions.
Delusions: False beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur that may accompany psychotic disorders.
Personality Disorders: Psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning.
Antisocial Personality Disorders: A personality disorder in which the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. May be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist.