Anabolic steroids (steroids for short) are used widely among bodybuilders toincrease their testosterone, thus to get stacked or larger. Steroids seem to be awonderful thing for these bodybuilders, but very few of them know just how they workand what the effects are.
History The word anabolic portrays any substance, which accumulates nitrogen inmuscle protein and from there builds muscle tissue. The bodys natural anabolic steroidis called testosterone, which men (naturally) obtain more of, than women do. Testosterone brings on the development of speed, mass, endurance, definition, andstrength. Testosterone is naturally released into the blood stream, goes to differentlocations, accomplishes its goal, and is broken down by enzymes. This process is donerather quickly. Eventually chemists discovered how to modify testosterone molecules tomake them last longer, and this is how anabolic steroids came into play.What Steroids do (biologically)? In a normal body, the procedures of catabolism (breaking down and removal of old cells)and anabolism (building up of new cells) are in an equilibrium. When anabolic steroidsare used, this balance is thrown off by the supremacy of the building up of new cells, andfrom cells come muscle, so therefore muscle mass is increased.
As previously stated, allanabolic steroids are chemical derivatives of testosterone. Because testosterone has ashort biological half-life, pharmacological use requires the steroid to be altered to slowmetabolism by the liver. Commonly, oral steroids are modified by alkylation (replacingH with a CH3 group), and injectable steroids are modified by esterification of thehydroxyl group.Anabolic steroids work by coupling with the cytoplasmic androgen receptor,where the steroid-receptor complex moves into the nucleus and binds to DNA. Thesteroid and receptor may also dissociate in the nucleus and act on DNA separately, but itis uncertain if this actually happens.
Testosterone may also inhibit the catabolic pathwayassociated with glucocorticoids, but this is also uncertain as to whether this is affiliatedwith an interaction between testosterone and glucocorticoid or the nuclear manner of thesteroid-receptor complex. In the nucleus steroids seem to intensify specific gene material.Then mRNA is prepared to be sent out of the nucleus, leaving increased proteinsynthesis. If the complex inhibits the catabolic enzymes then it is possible that catabolicinhibition may also occur in the nucleus. By looking at the concentration of the androgenreceptor, it is an example of how sensitive it is.
Skeletal muscle typically contains 0.5-3femto (1E-12) moles per milligram of protein, at the same time other androgen sensitiveorgans, may have up to 25 times more receptors. Oral Steroids and their effect on The LiverOral steroids have a negative effect on the liver due to the fact that they have an alkylgroup (methyl or ethyl) assembled at the 17-alpha position. The 17-beta hydroxyl (OH)is now changed from a secondary to an unoxidizable teritary one (an irregular disfigure),which obstructs the natural hepatic oxidation of the 17 hydroxyl group. When thismetabolic inactivation is blocked, the liver turns to less proficient and more complexmechanisms of inactivation. Injectable steroids are conceived to go in the system and gethydrolyzed and become a natural metabolizable secondary 17-beta hydroxyl steroid, andare not considered to be dangerous to the liver.
Common/Known Effects of Steroid UseWater retention is a known sign of a steroid user. Usually the neck and facial arebecome puffy, or puffier than normal. It may be hard to recognize in someone you firstmet, but once his or her steroid use is complete, you can see the difference. Acne isanother effect through steroid use. A person who has never had a problem can developone from steroids.
Also acne can appear in places that were never a problem. Theformation of breast-like glands can arise, this is called gynecomastia. Roid rages oroverly aggressive behavior can take place through steroid use. People often joke aboutthe term roid rage, but it is not a joke. People who use steroids often find that theirperformance during their workouts are enhanced because they can take out theiraggression through lifting more, but they also take aggression out on other parts of theirsurroundings (people around them, walls, slamming doors, etc). High blood pressure canbecome a problem after or during steroid use.
Because steroids affect cholesterol levels(by clogging the arteries), heart problems may arise in steroid users. The elevated levelon the nervous system can trigger heart Palpitations. When a steroid user begins using,sexual arousal increases,