An patients may benefit from systemic antibiotics, topical

An antibiotic is a substance, such as penicillin or erythromycin, produced by or derived from certain microorganisms, including fungi and bacteria, which can destroy or inhibit the growth of other microorganisms, especially bacteria1. Antibiotics are widely used in the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases.Antibiotic, also called as antibacterial, are a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.

There has been a number of antibiotics discovered starting from the discovery of penicillin in 1928, by Sir Alexander Fleming to the present teixobactin in 2015 by Professor Kim Lewis of Northeastern University in Boston.2 Of which macrolides are a class of antibiotics having less drug resistance, good antibacterial concentrations in tissues. The term “macrolide” is used to describe drugs with a macro- cyclic lactone ring of 12 or more elements. This class of compounds includes a variety of bioactive agents, including antibiotics, antifungal drugs, prokinetics, and immunosuppressants.3The 14-, 15-, and 16-membered macrolides are a widely used family of antibiotics.

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They have excellent tissue penetration and antimicrobial activity, mainly against Gram-positive cocci and atypical pathogens. The term macrolide was initially proposed by R.B.

Woodward in 1957 for macrocyclic lactone antibiotics (containing 12 or more atoms) lactone ring (e.g., methymycin, pikromycin, and carbomycin), but the term has gradually came in a broader sense. Periodontitis patients may benefit from systemic antibiotics, topical antibiotics and topical antiseptics.

Periodontal disease is one of the most common microbial infections in adults. It is an inflammatory disease of bacterial origin that affects the tooth-supporting tissues. More than 500 microbial species have been identified in subgingival plaque, which can thus be considered to represent a complex ecological niche.

  Although the presence of periodontal pathogens is essential for the onset of periodontitis, these organisms are not sufficient for the disease to progress. Mechanical debridement of the dental bio-film and elimination of local irritating factors are the basis of initial periodontal therapies. It has limitations, particularly if the disease has led to the formation of pockets deeper than 5 mm around effected teeth. The non-surgical therapy may remove sub gingival Campylobacter rectus but is frequently ineffective against Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Bacteroides forsythus, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans or Peptostreptococcus micros. Not all patients or all sites respond uniformly and favorably to conventional mechanical therapy.

So, this might be one of the rationale for the evolution of adjunctive use of antibiotics. This is the reason to make an attempt to write library dissertation on macrolides in periodontal therapy. 

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