Among the major challenges of the policy makers, rural development is considered as one of the most fundamental and important. A major part of the Indian economy is correlated with the rural sectors. So development of this sector has always received importance from the Government. The schemes and policies of India’s rural sector always follow problem specific solutions. These are:- i)Excessive dependency on natural and all natural components ii) Small uneconomic land and livestock holding iii) Low capital and labour ratio iv) Low factor productivity v) High level of poverty vi) Predominance of illiterate and unskilled labour vii) Insufficient infrastructure.
Initially, the schemes were founded as community development programmes but now an integrated approach is being followed.(ref.) In rural Balasore, varied physiographical setup, soil structure and other land resources have led to the implementation of different schemes for overall development. The rural development schemes implemented in Balasore, both national and state level, emphasize on the diversification of economic activities, minimizing the dependency on agriculture, or provide possible subsidy to the rural farmers, increasing the employment in allied activities, subsidy to introduce the rural industries, and execute business as well as service components to explore rural economy. From the very beginning, the schemes have targeted the remote areas of the district. But afterwards, the people engaged in primary activity got importance. Patel (2014) in his article ‘ Rural development schemes-an assessment’ has stated “programs specifically designed for the development of the small and marginal farmers as well as landless and agricultural laborers were taken up in the early 1970s” (Kurukshetra, A Journal of Rural Development Vol.62, No4, February 2014).
However both the national level and state level rural development schemes are -National Rural Development Schemes: The schemes implemented in Balasore district are National Agricultural Insurance Scheme ii) National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme iii) Pradhan mantri Gram Sarak Yojana iii) Rajib Gandhi Gramin Vidyutikaran Yojana, iv) Swarnajayanti gram swarozgar Yojana, v) Indira Awas Yojana. Vi) Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan vi) Antadaya Anna yojana etc. State level rural development schemes: i) Gopabandhu gramin Yojana ii) Biju kurshak Yojana, iii) Biju Pucca Ghara iv) Mo kudia Yojana v) Biju Gram Jyoti Yojana (ref….)12.1Rural Infrastructure:12.1.1 Gopabandhu Gramin Yojana: This is an alternate special development programme implemented by the Government of Odhisa. Those districts that have not received or have not been covered under the Backward Regions Grant Fund (BGRF), a scheme launched by Government of India, are taken up under this scheme.
The scheme was implemented from the year 2006-07 and has been continued up to 12th plan period (2012-17) successfully. The scheme has been implemented in 11 districts of Orissa including Balasore (Nayek, 2006).Fund allocation: As mentioned in the guidelines that per annum fund allocation under this scheme is Rs10/- crore for 2006-07 to 2011-12 or six years for each district (Nayek, 2006). Objective: the basic objective of the scheme is to provide the required additional funds for the purpose of infrastructural development that generally includes electricity, road and water supply.
The facilities services and project works of this scheme include-a) construction of concrete roads within the village b) construction of black top/concrete roads to connect a village with a nearest PMGSY or ODR road c) street lights within the village d) provision of drinking water supply and creation of irrigation sources. All these infrastructural components are maintained by the concerned Gram panchayat. Different development programmes related or working simultaneously are, the Biju Krushak Vikash Yojana, the Swajaladhara, RGGVY, PMGSY etc. DRDA or District Rural development Authority has been finalized on the basis of the requirement as found by primary survey.
Among The Block wise allocation Nilagiri block (Nayek, 2006).