Americans felt that expansion to oversea markets might provide relief to the labor violence and agrarian unrest that existed in the countryFelt emboldened with a new sense of power generated by population growth, wealth increase, and increased productive capacityReverend Josiah Strong’s Our Country: Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis inspired missionaries to travel to foreign nationsCaptain Alfred Thayer Mahan’s The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660-1783, argued that control of the sea was the key to world dominanceStimulated the naval race among the great powersSecretary of state James G. Blaine published his “Big Sister” policy Tried to get the Latin American countries to open their markets to Americans.Americans were ready to go to war over small disputes with other countriesDemonstrated the country’s new aggressive moodMonroe’s Doctrine and the Venezuelan SquallThe area between British Guiana and Venezuela had been in dispute for over 50 yearsConflict arose when gold was discovered in the contested area.Secretary of state Richard Olney warned that if Britain went to war with Venezuela, then Britain would be violating the Monroe DoctrineBritain disregarded this warning, so President Cleveland threatened war.Britain was preoccupied with other potential wars in Europe, so they avoided a new war and reconciled with AmericaThe Great Rapprochement between the US and Britain became a cornerstone of both nations’ foreign policies Spurning the Hawaiian PearFirst New England missionaries reached Hawaii in 1820In the 1840s the State Department warned other countries to stay out of HawaiiIn 1887 a treaty with the native government guaranteed naval-base rights at Pearl HarborSugar imports from Hawaii became less profitable with the McKinley Tariff of 1890Decided that the best way to overcome the tariff would be to annex HawaiiQueen Liliuokalani insisted that native Hawaiian should control the islandsIn 1893 Americans successfully overthrew the QueenMost Hawaiians did not want to be annexed so President Grover Cleveland decided to delay annexation of Hawaii Cubans Rise in RevoltCubans revolted against Spanish rule in 1895Burned sugar cane fields (if they destroyed enough of Cuba then Spain might abandon Cuba, or the US might move in and help the Cubans with their independence)The Spanish put Cubans in reconstruction camps so they could not support the insurrectorsAmerica had a large investment and conducted substantial trade with CubaIn 1896 Congress passed a resolution that recognized the revolting CubansPresident Cleveland opposed imperialism and said that he would not go to war with Spain over Cuba The Mystery of the Maine ExplosionWilliam R. Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer used “yellow journalism” to inflate anger of the American people over the crisis in Cuba (dramatization)On February 15, 1898 the Maine blew up in the Havana portSpanish claimed it was an accident (spontaneous combustion in one of the coal bunkers)Americans claimed that Spain had sunk itAmerican people did not believe the Spanish, and war with Spain became unavoidableSpain had agreed to the Americans demands:End to the reconstruction camps and an armistice with Cuban rebelsMcKinley did not want war with Spain but the American people didSent his war message to Congress on April 11, 1898Congress declared war and adopted the Teller AmendmentSaid that when the US had beaten the Spanish the Cubans would be freeDewey’s May Day Victory at ManilaSpanish military significantly outnumbered the American armyAmerican naval ships were in much better condition than the SpanishCommodore George Dewey’s 6-ship fleet attacked Spain’s Philippines on May 1, 1898Attacked and destroyed the 10-ship Spanish fleet at ManilaGerman ships threatened to attack Dewey’s ships in the Manila harbor (claiming that they wanted to protect German nationals)Potential for conflict with Germany blew overOn August 13, 1898 American troops captured ManilaIt was thought that Hawaii was needed as a supply base for DeweyCongress passed a joint resolution of Congress to annex Hawaii on July 7, 1898 The Confused Invasion of CubaSpanish government sent a fleet of warships to Cuba led by Admiral CerveraWas blockaded in the Santiago harbor in Cuba by American shipsThe “Rough Riders,” was a regiment of American volunteers that was commanded by Colonel Leonard Wood and organized by TRThe advancing American army caused the Spanish fleet to retreat from the Santiago harborFleet was entirely destroyed on July 3, 1898General Nelson A.
Miles met little resistance when he took over Puerto RicoOn August 12, 1898 Spain signed an armisticeMany more Americans had been killed by disease (malaria/typhoid/yellow fever) than by bullets. America’s Course (Curse?) of EmpireSpanish and Americans met in Paris in 1898 to discuss terms to the end of the warAmericans secured Guam and Puerto RicoPresident McKinley didn’t want to give the Philippines back to the Spanish but didn’t want to leave the island in a state of disarrayDecided to Christianize all of the FilipinosAmerica agreed to pay Spain $20 million for the Philippines.The Anti-Imperialistic League fought McKinley’s expansionist moves in regards to the Philippines.Expansionists argued that Americans have a duty to help the underprivileged people of the worldThe Senate approved the treaty on February 6, 1899 Perplexities in Puerto Rico and CubaForaker Act of 1900 gave the Puerto Ricans a limited degree of popular governmentIn 1917 they were granted US citizenshipThe Supreme Court’s rulings in the Insular Cases declared that the Constitution did not extend to the Philippines and Puerto RicoThe US withdrew from Cuba in 1902Forced the Cubans to write their own constitution of 1901 (the Platt Amendment)Cubans hated this document because it was written to benefit the AmericansConstitution decreed that the US might intervene with troops in Cuba to restore order and to provide mutual protectionCubans promised to sell or lease needed coaling or naval stations to the US New Horizons in Two HemispheresAlthough the Spanish-American War only lasted 113 days, it increased American prestige around the worldOne of the greatest results of the war was the bonding between the North and the South “Little Brown Brothers” in the PhilippinesFilipinos thought that the treaty would give them their independence (this was not the case)On February 4, 1899 the Filipinos started a rebellion against occupying American forcesLed by Emilio AguinaldoIn 1901 American soldiers captured Emilio Aguinaldo, effectively ending the rebellionPresident McKinley appointed the Philippine Commission in 1899 to set up a Filipino governmentWilliam H. Taft led the bodyGenuinely liked the FilipinosMcKinley’s plan of “benevolent assimilation” of the Filipinos was slowInvolved improving roads, sanitation, and public healthDeveloped economic ties and set up a school system with English as the 2nd languageWas hated by the Filipinos who preferred liberty Hinging the Open Door in ChinaAfter China’s defeat by Japan in 1894-1895, several European powers moved into ChinaSecretary of State John Hay released the Open Door NotesUrged foreign powers to respect Chinese commercial rightsRussia was the only major power to not accept itIn 1900 Chinese group known as the “Boxers” killed hundreds of foreigners in the Boxer RebellionA multinational rescue force came in and stopped the rebellionIn 1900 Secretary Hay declared that the Open Door would include the respect of Chinese territory Imperialism or Bryanism in 1900?McKinley was the Republican presidential nominee for the election of 1900Led the country through a warAcquired rich real estateEstablished the gold standardBrought prosperity to the nationSupported the gold standard and imperialism.Theodore Roosevelt nominated as the VPWilliam Jennings Bryan was the Democratic presidential candidateSupported the silver standard and anti-imperialismDemocratic party proclaimed that the paramount election issue was Republican overseas imperialismRepublican party proclaimed that Bryan would destroy the nation’s prosperity with his free-silver policyMcKinley and the Republican Party won the election of 1900 TR: Brandisher of the Big StickIn September 1901, President McKinley was assassinatedTR took over the presidencyFelt that the president should lead boldlyHe had no real respect for the checks and balances systemFelt that he may take any action in the general interest of the public that is not specifically forbidden by the Constitution Building the Panama CanalAmericans wanted to build a canal through the Central American isthmus to allow ships to quickly cross from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific OceanBritain signed the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty in 1901, which allowed the US to build and fortify the canalCongress decided to build the canal through PanamaAn offer to buy land had been rejected by the Colombian senate, who thought the offer was too lowPanamanians feared the US would choose the Nicaraguan route for the canalPanama would miss out on a prosperity created by the canal’s constructionOn November 3, 1903, Panamanians successfully revolted against Columbian ruleLed by Bunau-VarillaBunau-Varilla the Panamanian minister to the United States and signed the Hay-Bunau-Varilla TreatyGave the US control of a 10-mile zone around the proposed Panama CanalThe involvement in Panama marked a downward lurch in US relations with Latin AmericaIn 1904 the construction of the Panama Canal beganCompleted in 1914 at a cost of $400 million TR’s Perversion of Monroe’s DoctrineSeveral Latin American countries were in debt to European countriesTR feared that this would allow for future European involvement in Latin AmericaCreated a policy known as “preventive intervention.”Declared that the US could pay off the Latin American countries’ debts to keep European nations out of Latin AmericaLatin American countries hated the Monroe Doctrine because it had become the excuse for numerous US interventions in Latin America but TR was the one to blame for the interventions Roosevelt on the World StageJapan went to war with Russia in 1904Russia failed to withdraw troops from Manchuria and KoreaRoosevelt brokered a peace agreement in 1905The Japanese received no compensation for their losses and the southern half of SakhalinFriendship with Russia waned and Japan became a rival Japanese Laborers in CaliforniaThousands of Japanese were recruited to work in California after the Japanese government lifted its emigration ban in 1884Japanese immigrants faced racial hostility by whitesIn 1906 San Francisco’s school board segregated the Chinese, Japanese, and Korean students to make room for white studentsJapanese saw this action as an insult and threatened with warTR stepped persuaded Californians to repeal the segregationJapanese agreed to stop the flow of immigrants to the United StatesKnown as the “Gentlemen’s Agreement.
“In 1908 the Root-Takahira agreement was reached with JapanThe US and Japan pledged themselves to respect each other’s territorial possessionsChapter 28Progressive movement started at the beginning of the 20th CenturySought to use the government to improve human welfareFought monopolies, corruption, inefficiency, and social injustice Progressive RootsHenry Demarest Lloyd criticized the Standard Oil Company in his 1894 book Wealth Against CommonwealthJacob A. Riis shocked middle-class Americans in 1890 with How the Other Half LivesDescribed the slums of NYSocialists and feminists were at the front of social justice Raking Muck with the MuckrakersMuckrakers – reform-minded journalists who wrote articles in magazines that exposed corruption and scandalWent after trusts and politiciansTR coined this termIn 1902 Lincoln Steffens wrote “The Shame of the Cities”Unmasked the corrupt alliance between big business and municipal governmentIda M. Tarbell published a devastating depiction of the Standard Oil CompanyDavid G. Phillips published a series “The Treason of the Senate” in CosmopolitanCharged that 75 of the 90 senators did not represent the people, and instead represented railroads and trustsSome of the most effective attacks of the muckrakers were directed at social evilsThe suppression of America’s blacks was shown in Ray Stannard’s Following the Color Line (1908)John Spargo wrote of the abuses of child labor in The Bitter Cry of the Children (1906) Political ProgressivismProgressive reformers were mainly middle-class men and womenProgressives sought 2 goalsUse state power to control trustsImprove the common person’s conditions of life and laborWanted to regain the power that had shifted from the hands of the people into those of the “interests.”Supported the “initiative” so that voters could directly propose legislationSupported the “referendum” and the “recall,” which allowed voters to directly vote on laws to remove corrupt elected officialsProgressive reformers convinced Congress to pass the 17th Amendment in 1913Established the direct election of US senatorsSupported the use evidence and science in politicsProgressivism in the Cities and StatesStates used public utility commissions to regulate railroads and trustsRobert M. La Follette was a governor of Wisconsin who took control from the corrupt corporations and returned it to the people (Robin Hood)Only government has power to force changeGovernor of California, Hiram W.
Johnson, helped break the grip of the Southern Pacific Railroad on Californian politics in 1910 Progressive WomenWomen formed clubs where they discussed and proposed solutions for societal problems (club movement)Women’s Trade Union League and the National Consumers LeagueFlorence Kelley took control of the National Consumers League in 1899mobilized female consumers to pressure for laws safeguarding women and children in the workplaceMuller vs. Oregon (1908)Supreme Court ruled that it was constitutional to enact laws that specifically protected women factory workersLochner vs. New York (1905)Invalidated a New York law that limited the workday to 10 hours for bakersLaw eventually upheld in 1917Following a series of factory accidents, several states passed stronger laws regulating the working conditions in factoriesThe Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) was a large anti-alcohol women’s group TR’s Square Deal for LaborTR believed in the progressive reformEnacted a “Square Deal” program that consisted of 3 partsControl of the corporationsConsumer protectionConservation of natural resourcesIn 1902 coal miners in Pennsylvania went on strikeDemanded a 20% raise in payDemanded a workday decrease from 10 hours to 9 hoursWhen miner spokesman, George F. Baer refused to negotiate, TR stepped in and threatened to operate the mines with federal troopsDeal was struck so that miners received a 10% pay raise and 9 hour workdayIncreasing hostilities forced Congress to create the Department of Commerce in 1903Provided oversight of businesses engaged in interstate commerceTR Corrals the CorporationsEven though the Interstate Commerce Commission was created in 1887, railroads were able to delay the commission’s decisions by appealing to the federal courtsRailroad companies historically offered rebates to convince companies to use their rail linesIn 1903 Congress passed the Elkins ActFined railroads that gave rebates and the shippers that accepted themCongress passed the Hepburn Act of 1906Restricted free passes and expanded the Interstate Commerce CommissionFree passes – rewards offered to companies, in the form of free shipments to encourage future businessIn 1902 TR challenged the Northern Securities Company (railroad trust company that sought to achieve a monopoly of the railroads in the Northwest)The Supreme Court upheld the President and the trust was forced to be dissolved Caring for the ConsumerAfter botulism was found in American meats, foreign governments threatened to ban all American meat importsTR passed the Meat Inspection Act of 1906Stated that the preparation of meat shipped over state lines was subject to federal inspectionPure Food and Drug Act of 1906 was designed to prevent the adulteration and mislabelling of foods and pharmaceuticals Earth ControlDesert Land Act of 1887Federal government sold dry land cheaply on the condition that the purchaser would irrigate the soil within 3 yearsForest Reserve Act of 1891Authorized the president to set aside public forests as national parks and other reservesCarey Act of 1894 Distributed federal land to the states on the condition that it be irrigated and settledTR convinced Congress to pass the Newlands Act of 1902Authorized the federal government to use money from the sale of public lands in western states to develop irrigation projectsIn 1900 TR, trying to preserve the nation’s forests, set aside 125 million acres of land in federal reservesUnder TR professional foresters and engineers developed a policy of “multiple-use resource management.
“Sought to sustainably use federal lands for recreation, logging, watershed protection, and cattle grazing The “Roosevelt Panic” of 1907TR was re-elected as president in 1904Made it known that he would not run for a 3rd termPanic of 1907 was a short economic downturn that resulted in financial reformsCongress passed the Aldrich-Vreeland Act in 1908Authorized national banks to issue emergency currency in the event of a currency shortage The Rough Rider Thunders OutRepublican Party chose William Howard Taft, secretary of war to Theodore RooseveltDemocratic Party chose William Jennings BryanWilliam Howard Taft won the election of 1908During TR’s presidency:Greatly enlarged the power of the presidential officeHelped shape the progressive movementOpened the eyes of Americans to the fact that they shared the world with other nations Taft: A Round Peg in a Square HoleTaft was not an adept political leader like as RooseveltGenerally adopted an attitude of passivity towards Congress The Dollar Goes Abroad as a DiplomatTaft encouraged Wall Street bankers to invest in foreign areas of strategic interest to the US (dollar diplomacy)American bankers strengthened American defenses and foreign policies while bringing prosperity to AmericaJapan and Russia controlled the railroads in China’s ManchuriaTaft feared that this monopoly would hurt American merchantsIn 1909 Secretary of State Philander C. Knox proposed that Americans buy the Manchurian railroads and then turn them over to ChinaBoth Japan and Russia rejected the selling of their railroads Taft the Trust BusterTaft brought 90 lawsuits against trusts during his 4 years in officeRoosevelt’s had 44 suits in 7 years.In 1911 the Supreme Court ordered the dissolution of the Standard Oil CompanyStated that it violated the Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890In 1911 the Supreme Court laid out its “rule of reason” doctrineStated that a trust was illegal only if it unreasonably restrained trade Taft Splits the Republican PartyPresident Taft signed the Payne-Aldrich Bill in 1909Placed a high tariff on many importsAngered many Republicans because before he was elected, Taft said that he would lower the tariffTaft was a strong conservationistHis conservationist record was tarnished when he fired the chief of the Agriculture Department’s Division of Forestry, Gifford Pinchot, for insubordination in 1910 (Ballinger-Pinchot quarrel)Pinchot was liked by conservationistsBy the spring of 1910, the reformist wing of the Republican Party was furious with Taft, causing the Republican Party to split The Taft-Roosevelt RuptureIn 1911 the National Progressive Republican League was formed with La Follette as its leading candidate for the Republican presidential nominationChosen because it was assumed that TR would not re-run for electionIn February of 1912 TR decided to challenge Taft for the Republican presidential nominationLa Follette was replaced by RooseveltRoosevelt and Taft became opponents because TR felt that Taft had discarded many of his policiesTaft won the Republican nomination because Roosevelt Republicans refused to vote at the 1912 Republican conventionRoosevelt continued on as a 3rd-party candidate. The “Bull Moose” Campaign of 1912Democrats chose Woodrow Wilson as their candidateSaw Wilson as a reformist leader who could beat the Republican party’s candidate, TaftDemocrats had a strong progressive platformCalled for stronger antitrust laws, banking reform, and tariff reductions (New Freedom program)Favored small enterprise, entrepreneurship, and the free functioning of unregulated and unmonopolized marketsDid not support social-welfare programs that Roosevelt supportedTR ran again in the election as a 3rd party candidate for the Progressive Republican partyRan with a New Nationalism program which supported stronger control of trusts, woman suffrage, and programs of social welfareBoth candidates favored a more active government role in economic and social affairs but disagreed over specific strategiesRoosevelt was shot during the campaign but recovered after a couple of weeksTaft and Roosevelt split the Republican votes giving Wilson the presidencyRoosevelt’s Progressive Party died out because it did not have any elected officials in state and local offices