Along with the heart

Along with the heart, the brain plays a vital part in our everyday life with motor, sensory and integrative functions. Only weighing three pounds, two percent of the total body weight, and the size of a walnut the brain makes such an impact on the human body. (Herlihy, 2018, p. 183) The brain is composed of nerve cells that interact with the rest of the body through the spinal cord and nervous system with the help nerve impulses. “Many are chemicals located in the brain also help the body maintain homeostasis and overall comfort and calm as its basic needs are met.” (Hoffman, 2017) Any type of imbalance will lead the brain to not work properly which will result in speech, motor and vision impairment. The functions, conditions, and treatments are some of the countless explanations of amazing research.
Functions of the brain
The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain and contains most the brain’s function. It is divided into four sections: the frontal, the temporal lobe, the occipital lobe, and parental lobe. In (Herlihy, 2018, p. 185) the book states what each lobe is liable for. “The frontal lobe is responsible for personality, motor area, behavior and memory storage. Parietal lobe is accounted for somatosensory. Temporal lobe functions are the basic five senses such taste, hearing, smell, and parts of speech. Occipital lobe is responsible for vision.” Cerebellum helps with balance, coordination, and maintains structure. In the website (Hines, 2018) it helps with the deeper structures such as the hippocampus is the portion of the brain is used for memory. The hypothalamus controls mood, thirst, hunger and temperature. The Thalamus helps to control the attention span, sensing pain and monitors input that moves in and out of the brain to keep track of the sensations the body is feeling. “Many of the functions we use daily originate in the brain stem, including heartbeat, blood pressure and breathing. The brain stem consists of midbrain, pons and medulla. The midbrain help regulates body movement, vision and hearing. Pons which are in the back and connects to the cerebellum to help with posture and movement. The medulla oblongata helps with vital body functions such as the heart rate and breathing.” (Herlihy, 2018, pp. 188-189)
Brain Conditions
There are many conditions that can affect the brain daily whether it is a simple headache or to the most severe such as brain Alzheimer’s. On (Hoffman, 2017) the website gives many different types of conditions and diagnosis that are commonly found in the brain. Such as a stroke which occurs when blood flow and oxygen are suddenly interrupted to an area of brain tissue. A blood clots are the may cause of most strokes. Brain aneurysm is when an artery in the brain develops a weak area that swells and ruptures which causes a stroke. Subdural hematoma is bleeding inside or under the dura (the lining inside of the skull). A subdural hematoma may exert pressure on the brain, causing neurological problems. Epidural hematoma is bleeding between the tough tissue lining the inside of the skull and the skull itself, usually after a head injury. Initial mild symptoms can progress rapidly to unconsciousness and death, if untreated. Intracerebral hemorrhage is bleeding inside the brain. Concussion is a brain injury that causes a temporary disturbance. Cerebral edema is commonly known when there is swelling of the brain tissue in response to injury or electrolyte imbalances. Brain tumor Any abnormal tissue growth inside the brain. Glioblastoma is an aggressive brain tumor. Brain glioblastomas progress rapidly and are very difficult to cure. Hydrocephalus is an abnormally increased amount of cerebrospinal (brain) fluid inside the skull. Normal pressure hydrocephalus causes problems walking, along with dementia and urinary incontinence. Meningitis Inflammation of the lining around the brain or spinal cord, usually from infection. Traumatic brain injury permanent brain damage from a traumatic head injury. Palsy occurs when diminished dopaminergic cell activity in the basal ganglia. Brain abscess is infection within the brain caused by bacteria. Huntington’s disease is an inherited nerve disorder that affects the brain. Epilepsy is commonly known as seizures. Dementia is from death or malfunction of nerve cells in the brain. Alzheimer’s disease occurs when diminished dopaminergic cell activity in the basal ganglia. Brain abscess is infection within the brain caused by bacteria. (Hoffman, 2017)
Varieties of Testing
To catch or diagnose any conditions, doctors must run certain tests a lot of different tests were found on (Hoffman, 2017) such as Computed tomography (CT scan), Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan), Angiography, Magnetic resonance angiography, Lumbar puncture, Electroencephalogram, Neurocognitive testing, and Brain biopsy. Many of the information read from both websites and books helped getting into depth with all the reasons why and how each test and diagnostics. Every test method is all unique and is determined to depend on which part of the brain or something specific that requires more testing. Most common tests done daily are laboratory screening tests such as blood, urine, and other substances that may help diagnose or better understand a disease and genetic testing helps to notify the parents if any disorders such as spina bifida are going to affect their child. Diagnostic exams such as CT scan is an x-ray that converts into detailed images of the brain and skull. MRI scan creates detailed images of the brain and other areas of the head. Angiography a special substance called contrast agent is injected into the veins and travels into the brain can show problems in the brain’s arteries. Magnetic resonance angiography is an MRI scan of arteries to determine if there are blood clots or another reason for stroke. Lumbar puncture is often done if meningitis is suspected but it is a needle inserted into the space around the spinal nerves, and fluid is removed for analysis. Electroencephalogram Brain activity is monitored through electrodes placed on the skin on the head. EEG can help diagnose seizures or other brain problems. Neurocognitive testing Tests of problem-solving ability, short-term memory, and other complex brain functions. Usually, neurocognitive testing is done through questionnaires. Brain biopsy (a very small piece of the brain is needed) in rare situations but is crucial, to diagnosis a brain condition. Brain biopsies are generally done only when the information is needed to provide proper treatment. These tests are used to properly diagnose a person with any disorders most accurately. Most common early signs of brain disorders are commonly vomiting, headaches, seizures, tingling or numbness in arms or legs, nausea, changes in hearing, speech or vision and difficulty in movement or balance. It’s advised if anyone has any type of symptoms or questions to ask their doctor or health care professional so early detection can be found.
Every day researchers continue to find new information on the brain with the help of amazing new technology. Some conditions that are unexplainable will soon have a reason and newly enhanced imagines will fully help understand the brain. For now, the functions, conditions, and testing are the ways we will know will help us teach the younger generations, so they can help us improve the future. The brain is complex but is one of the various reasons we can receive, organize, and distribute information. Seeing all the information of the websites and book really helped understand how technology can help physicians treat their patients at their best ability.


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