All three of the articles found provided scientific evidence supporting the fact that mammography screening reduces mortality rates for breast cancer.The first article “Reduced mortality for women with mammography-detected breast cancer in east Denmark and south Sweden” focused on patient delay and mammography detection in Sweden and Denmark.
Data used for the study were obtained from hospital records, general practitioners, and private surgeons. Based on the study, Swedish women showed to have higher detection rates of breast cancer via mammography with 24% in 1989 and 38% in 1994. However, these results were skewed as some women were too old or young to participate, some declined to participate in the program or were presented with interval cancer, which can cause insufficient results. Danish women who were introduced to mammography screening later had 2% (1989) and 7% (1994) detection rates for mammography screenings.
Although the study had relevant and reliable references, it failed to include a broader age group and geographical area. While breast cancer is prevalent in women above the age of 50, there are exceptions, and excluding these women can lead to inconclusive results. Furthermore, analyzing only designated geographical areas of a country can cause a lack of variability in the data as different parts of a country have different ethnicities, resources and lifestyles. In terms of currency, this study is relatively outdated. It has been almost 30 years since this study was conducted, and there have been several technological advances in breast screening mammography since then. Even though the article is outdated, there are over 30 references used for the study and all of them are relevant findings that pertain to the study which can conclude that the findings are accurate. The second article, “Pan-Canadian Study of Mammography Screening and Mortality from Breast Cancer” by Coldman et al.
compared breast cancer mortality in breast screening participants and non-participants across Canada. Seven provincial screening programs participated in the study, and participants were recruited either by self-referral or personal invitation letters. Researchers found that individuals all across Canada who took part in the screening program had a 40% decrease in breast cancer than they had expected. This study featured results of over 2.7 million screening participants and was conducted less than five years ago, which allows it to be a reliable source to support evidence of the positive effects of mammography screening.
However, a severe limitation of this study is that each of the seven provinces had different age eligibility requirements, screening technology, and recruitment methods. These factors could have impacted the mortality rate found amongst who women who participated in the breast screening program. The final article, “Screening Mammography: A Pilot Study on its Pertinence in Indian Population by Means of a Camp” by Kumar et al., conducted a screening camp for women in India to raise awareness because breast-related issues are not discussed openly. The study was conducted with 118 women who ranged from the ages of 35 – 64, and the results showed that of the 30 underwent sono mammography due to dense breast compositions, 6 new malignancies cases and 28 cases of benign findings were detected. The limitations that were featured in this study were a lack of ethnical diversity, a small number of participants, and geographical area.
A small number of participants cannot conclude that a study is accurate, especially when all these participants are of the same ethnicity. Additionally, if mammography camps could expand to a larger geographical area it would provide sufficient information to help make a conclusion regarding mammography screenings.