Alcohol social factors that contribute to heavy drinking

Alcohol consumption
among pregnant women is chronic cancer of the century that ought to be
addressed. This article is a quantitative study, examining a range of social
factors that influence drinking during period of pregnancy among women. In this
study, pregnant women were classified on the basis of whether they were light
or heavy drinkers before pregnancy period or whether they were convinced to
abstain from drinking after knowing side effects associated with alcohol
consumption. A range of social factors that contribute to heavy drinking were
identified and empirically measured to evaluate their significance levels among
women (Testa & Leonard, 1995). The study made statistical predictions and
tentative solutions relating to alcohol abuse which were later on substantiated
by experimental tests.

Empirical Research Study

This selected study is
quantitative. There are main features which substantiate the fact that authors
were interested in assessing statistically measurable variables that impact the
manner in which pregnant women consume alcohol. First and foremost, data used
in the study relies on various structured research instruments. For example,
while collecting sample population to be used in the study, researchers relied
on telephone calls to interview participants on a range of issues relating to
alcohol abuse during pregnancy (Testa & Leonard, 1995). Telephone calls
made it possible for the participants to be screened for eligibility before
being enrolled in the study. Generally, telephone calls have been categorized
as comprehensive and structured research instrument used in carrying out a
quantitative research study.

Another instrument used for measuring alcohol consumption among heavy
and light drinkers is Wilsnack, Klassen, and Wilsnack’s (1986) Lifetime
Drinking History tool (Testa & Leonard, 1995). The instrument was used to
assess the quantity of consumed alcohol for the last fourteen days in pregnant
women. Major patterns were also evaluated by use of this instrument for the
last three days thus making the research quantitative. Notably, a questionnaire
is another structured instrument making this research being quantitative in
nature. This data collection tool was used to record views from the
participants on beliefs on how a pregnant woman is supposed to abstain from
consuming alcohol when faced with pressure from society (Testa & Leonard,
1995). A questionnaire was also used to gather views on the influence of social
networks such as how men impact on their female counterparts and friends to
drink alcohol. Administration of the questionnaire was done in such a well
coordinated and comprehensive way by a trained interviewer.

Hollingshead index structured instrument was used to assess the
economic status of heavy and light alcohol consumers among pregnant women
(Testa & Leonard, 1995). For example the level of academic qualifications
and development status were known to have a significant impact in impacting on
how pregnant women drink alcohol. On the other hand, problems that emanate due
to interactions with partners in a given environmental setup were evaluated use
of a Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) structured instrument (Testa &
Leonard, 1995).RDC has the ability to assess the level of alcoholism in an
absent individual by use of family reports in alcoholism. In summary, the
following are structured empirical research instrument making this study being quantitative
in nature: Wilsnack, Klassen, and Wilsnack’s (1986) Lifetime Drinking History
tool, questionnaire, Hollingshead index, use of telephone calls and Research
Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) tool.

The results of the study are based on the sample size that represents
total population of those who were willing to participate in the study. A
sample size of 159 willing and qualified participants was drawn from a pool of
413 people that was ready to participate in this study (Testa & Leonard,
1995). These women responded to advertisement made on newspapers aimed
outsourcing social pregnant drinkers and those referred by prenatal clinics
through flyers. The study is also quantitative in nature because it can easily
be repeated, replicated due to its high probability of reliability. Prior to
conducting this study, researchers had earlier carried a similar study of this
nature. They have borrowed a lot from scholarly research works to substantiate
their claims. By eliminating over fifteen women who failed to meet set threshold
requirements, the study embraces credibility, validity and element of

The authors managed to define the research question, made their own
tentative objective upon which solutions have been found. For example, there is
that distinction between light and heavy pregnant women who drink alcohol on
different occasions (Testa & Leonard, 1995). The research has managed to
unravel the mask of the connection between the impacts of men to pregnant women
drinking alcohol, the economic status among other aspects relating to the
current study. Research has comprehensive definitions of statistical terms such
as correlation as applied in analysis of variance (ANOVA), and significance
levels of various variables measured.

Statistical numbers have been arranged in form of tables (scores of
the socioeconomic measurements and positive indicators from participants on the
impact of social networks on alcohol abuse). Evidently, there is graphical
representation of the results such as level of pre-pregnancy drinking versus
percentage indications among heavy and light alcohol consumers, and alcohol
drinking level versus percentage indication of the difficulty in resisting
pressure from friends, family members and other people within social networks
(Testa & Leonard, 1995).  These are
evident characteristics from this study which justify it being quantitative in


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