Agriculture-Agriculture the more protected environment agriculture provided, and

Agriculture-Agriculture has been leading to the evolutionary change ever since its initiation long back, and this change spread through the agricultural endeavors at all levels of biological organization. It was the key development in the rise of human civilisation, where farming of specific species created food overabundance that nurtured the development of human civilisation.  In the development of human society, agriculture led to the shift to a relatively settled way of life from a nomadic hunter-gatherer life-style because people started owning land and this shift made possible only by the development and adoption of early agricultural practices. In turn, this change in human life-style had major impacts on the environment of agriculture and hence the traits and characteristics of plants and animals that were favoured both consciously and unconsciously by humans. Very often traits suited to species growing without human protection/husbandry were not suitable for agriculture and were rapidly lost (e.g. seed shattering), while others were speci?cally favoured by the more protected environment agriculture provided, and increased in frequency (e.g. seed retention). (Source- Evolutionary change in agriculture: the past, present and future Peter H. Thrall,1 James D. Bever2 and Jeremy J. Burdon1) Also modern agronomy, plant breeding, agrochemicals and technological developments have sharply increased yields, but at the same time have caused widespread ecological damage and negative human health effects.According to ILO/WHO, agriculture is defined as “all forms of activities connected with growing, harvesting and primary processing of all types of crops, with breeding, raising and caring of animals, and with tending gardens and nurseries.” An approximately a billion of workers are engaged in agricultural production worldwide. This represents more than 1/4th of the total world labour force. As countries develop, the share of the population working in agriculture is declining. While more number population in poor countries work in agriculture as compare to the population does in rich countries. It is predominantly due to the huge productivity increase that makes this reduction in labor possible. Only 9% of agricultural workers are in industrialized countries. Almost 60% of them are in developing countries. (Source- ILO- Safety and health in agriculture) Among developing countries. A majority of agricultural workers are found in Asia, mainly in China and India, which is the most densely populated region of the world. Also, the number of people employed in agriculture varies widely as per country basis, ranging from less than 2% in developed countries like the US and UK to over 80% in many African nations.


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