AFRICA was extended to Africa on lines of




REG NO: 17J03DMGP045

QUESTION: Evaluate the challenges facing the post conflict sector reforms in Africa
INTRODUCTIONDue to many conflicts in Africa continent it has led the population to be dismay and constant accompanied by insecurity in the region. The first and second world war it really saturated the arms in Africa .The super powers US and USSSR fought more in their colonies in Africa and that so many arms being brought to Africa for the war which was extended to Africa on lines of colonial masters. After the war the arms didn’t get collected but instead they were left in Africa and some with civilians. This called for the removal of the arms .The end of wars did only stop the actual fight but in essence there were many dangers exposed by war which were left unresolved .Among many of them was the possession of arms in the hands of civilians which could be used to harm the innocent communities.

The efforts of many states it to stop the war but making the communities safe in living without dangers it’s given loses attention. Thus why the moment conflicts stops the pursue of peace stops there but there’s need to disarm the armed combatants and reintegrate them to the society and the process of control of arms possession continue. The law should be used without favour for the personality who trade in firearms noting that its one the most lucrative business.

The internal conflicts and ethnic clashes has been very frequent where many countries like Somalia which has been in fight for long and many other countries have fallen prey to internal conflicts. During the fight in liberia a lot many weapons were brought in the country for war, Again during the inner conflicts many arms find themselves in the hands of the civilians. More so the proliferations of the arms have been very common in Africa due to weak governance.

Also due to boarder conflicts many weapons cross from one country to another and find themselves in control of civilian who use the for crime purposes and cattle rustling among others eg Pokot community in Kenya got a lot of arms during Uganda civil war and even unto now the arms are with the community and it’s the source of conflicts in North rift not to mention Mt Elgon region.
Polarization of the borders and inter community conflicts can fuel the arms entrance in the community .Thus is because during such the security is very weak and criminals do take advantage to trade with arms thus why arms need to be controlled from being in the hands of the community. In Northern Kenya there’s lot of weapon from neighboring due to clan conflicts so the neighboring countries serve as a supplier to our country, these countries have a long history and almost every citizen has a arm which cross very fast when the border is not well controlled.

Political instability has as well affected African continent since many of these countries find the governance very weak to control arm movements and need to have control to arms moving in the hands of community .Political situation of Africa as well contributed in arms due to weak security structures like courts and police which don’t have adequate technique in controlling the arms movement in the region not mentioning the weak legislation in handling arms cases,
Emerging of gang groups in the region has as well affected firearms control, where the gangs like Alkaida; Mombasa Republican congress who operate to polarize the machinery systems of the country making arms control very weak. All these calls for the control of the arm by the government .These gangs are great threat since they even use crude weapons which sometimes are not classified as arms. These situation calls for removal of the arms for those who have but in the working closely with the community to ensure no arms should be in the hands in the individual possession.

BACKGROUND INFORMATIONTrends of Arica as far as arms and conflict is concerned its quite long it dates back on the times of colonial era. AS it was mentioned earlier the super powers were involved in the war and they fought together with their allies. Due to the super powers involvement there have been a lot frustration and interference by the colonial masters.

Immediately after the war the situation did not change to any better in African commitment since the war now changed in to cold war .This war it s done together with allies and mostly used to settle the scores between the masters. The cold war has a lot to do with diplomatic ties propaganda and coercion which is not good for the governance. The Africa continent has remained under pressure from the western leading to weak decisions making on areas touching security.

Atieno A.2011,quoted that Demilitarization, Disarmament and Development in Southern Africa” looks at how the DDR process is not only important in itself but also imperative to reconstructing conflict zones in the region and creating conditions more conducive for regional arms control. Most countries of Africa have been under the war in itself an issue which makes it hard to control the arms management. Countries like Somalia is hard to control arms movement since there stable government instead the government in existence are taken advance the wish of the masters.Countries like Iraq were invaded by Americans but this only achieved the proliferation of arms.

It has been observed that after the Togo war may arms many arms did itself in the countries of West Africa. The same went into the hands of the civilians and the arms are used to cause chaos in the region. Readily found arms it’s a great challenge in the continent and this calls for controls. Country have agreed to control the possession of arms and also remove the ones in hands of the community and that what we call disarmament.

United nations noted that integration branch reintegration n are involved in coordination and control of arms
Knorp J. 2018, States that when states defy a prevailing norm, the question of enforcement can become relevant. This has been true of efforts to erect norms against nuclear proliferation
The process of disarmament its very complex since the people having possession of the arms are not willing to surrender thus makes it very challenging exercise .Most times disarmament goes with reintegration if it will be effective but there’s alot to be put into consideration. But whatever the reason it calld for the community support if its to succeeed.The community and othersakeholders like the civil society have to be activelly engaged so that tgey can assist the orocess.The process of disarmament and reintergration requires huge resources and thus calls for goverment commitment and civil society suppotr otherwise the arms have to be controlled for peaceful continnent otherwise it will be used to mean thpose tools will be uswe agaist neighbours.Community atlarge its very key since the people possessing the arns are part of the community .The buying in from the community will capture community support and exercise will be very effective otherwise failure to invole them the exercise fails before commence.No way any agency wuill understand the ground situation more than community.

Bamako declaration 2000 proposed a variety of regional-level initiatives have also taken shape. For instance, as a member of the African Union, the Republic of South Sudan is required under the 2000 Bamako Declaration to take measures at national, regional and international level to deal with the problem of SALW.This declaration and many others could help in seeing regions working together and coming up with specific initiatives to comntrol proliferation of arms inthe region.This declaration it domesticated the recommendations of United Nations on control of circulation and keeping of arms in West african countries.

Its good that the continent has protocols on controlling possession of arms in the community and this helps in standarizatio of thre opreatipons.Every country has asserted to the declaration to ensure the arms will be controlled to ensure stability of the region.

Acountry like Angola has worked very to control the landmines and that is a pratical example of an afrizan committment to control the arms.The state has many even used amnesty to those with arm but we cannot say it has effective .But its worthy noting that the law against possission neesd to be made publicised and be applied to alll regadless of the one standings.Amnesty has to be handled with alot of care and with commuinity involvement because it can easilly bring the immunity state in the country.

The disarmament exercise can be effective if the government is commitment and supports the exercisesince they have to set budget to be used in the whole exercise.The government through their national assembly has to pass treartie and legalise the proposed laws. The role of government cannot be under rated in disarmament it is the one with security apparatus.

For the disarmament and arms control to be effective the has to be done as a region otherwise can see it being only shifted to ythe nearby country.

U N Disnarmenr commission adopted recomme ndation on how the disbabrmamt adopte guideliness an d guideliness for regional policies for .this will help in tose guideliness for reuional approaches to disbamemt
The world order arms control meeting on 2003 during the Disarmament Commission concluded calling for a new democratic world order based on security for all through effective arms control and disarmament and rejection of the unilateral use of military force, which they said undermined international security and encouraged possession by States of weapons of mass destruction.

African countries are not fully democratic san issue undermining tne disrmamenrt and control of arms.When countries So long countries are ever in conflicts its hard to conytol arms movements .Its wothy noting that the democratic systems of africa its very poor thus why every time the elections its done in most countries theres conflict due flawed elections.For instance Kenya has been in conflicts most of ties when elctions is done the wost being 2007 elections when many lives were lost and property destyoyed.Other factors which are not well observed and undermine arms control is rule of law whereby people are not handled the same by law leadinng to conflicts
Mcminn k.2015,saidd that peace and security it involves giving women’s civil society aplace at the tables of the patriarchal institutions of peace and security to dismantle the drivers of conflict and inequality.for effective disarmament and arms control the government should use inclusive approach whre by all the stakeholders ar included .thhe media,civil society and women should be part of the s important to note the women are not only victims of the arms profirelation but they a key stakeholder in the whole process .therefore needs to be actively involved in the peace and control process of the arms.civil society and media play critical role in eduaciting the comunities on dangers of firearms possession .iF the continent will be free from the armas and its adverse effects the focus to women developmenment socially ,economically and politically its very critical.But women and girls have been subjected to gender discrimination and inequality making them unable to contribute in the process yet they are drivers of peace.

Kytomaki E.2003 said that there is growing recognition of the need to develop regional and global perspectives to combat the illicit trade of small arms, and such mechanisms are slowly emerging. State sare establishing and strengthening cooperation and partnerships at all levels and with regional andinternational organizations as well as civil society.The countries in Africa sghare aklot and the momevement across the borders is very common during civil war thus why bthere is a need to for tyhe countries toworkas a partners in cotrol of arms movements within the region.When thre was uprising in Togo it made the whole region saturated with arms just the same of civilwar in Somalia the East and central Africa is equally affected whereby to gey gun is very esay .

United Nations general assembly 2006 members espressed the commitment of targeting the $1 billion-a-year illicit trade in small arms continued today with speakers from the African continent among those calling urgently for a global crack down on illegal arms dealers and tighter arms regulations — especially the activities of brokers — whose deadly wares often fell into the hands of non-State actors and fuelled conflict, contributed to poverty, and stalled development in their fragile countries.Liberia in particular has been working hard to eliminate smallarms in the country but needs support from other states to eradicate the trade.Without the states commitment to fight bthe vice it will be hard to control firearms in the region.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONSThe disarmament and arms control in AFRICA Has not reached the level worthy for the reason tn ot besafe from use of the same.Despite the efforts by International communities to assist the continent to comntrol the arms many are findind ways to Africa a situation which has led the continent volatile .Many conflicts arising in the region has contributed to the effect and unless addressed in estimate by average many people in the vcontinent will be having a firearm for use.

The fact most of the conflicts in this century comes from ethnic and intertribal wars its clear indication it has more to do with governance .There have been increase bon the conflicts from elction related activities which points out on the way the democratic process of the state its,bearing in mind every election period in African state has become a recipe for violence.Even where thers no ellecvtion violence most those states are ruled through dictatorship and it is aquestion of time and it will explode.

African Union on its part bas a organization which should ensure the peace and continents free from arms has faiked to have strong monitoring and compliance unit to address the situation.Actually the the union does not have enough teeth to bite and the existance of the union to sonme critics it is like African states presidential club which is viewed as a organization to protect the sitting reegime .A case at hand its when they had overssen the 2017 kenyan presidential election and gave the sitting president a clean on relection only to be nullified by the supreme courts due to cited malpracices.The question remains is the union competent to oversee the elections in Africa.

The international communities are equally to blame for the worsening situation because they do very little in filling pressure to conflicts but they are said to be quick to provide humanitarian support when the war escacalates ,making one wonder why wait aftre the destruction of the property and lives then you become very concern.Despite the international communities to build strong governance structures but their conditions through world bank and Intrenational Monetary Fund makes it hard for efficient governance.The conditions of workforce ratio and managemement make it hard forth country to mananage the citizens.

REFERENCES1.UN genral asembly on 17 th april 2003; world order based on effective arms control, rejection of unilateral use of force called for in disarmament commission1. General Assembly Bilateral Disarmament Progress, Right to Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy among Issues Highlighted, As Disarmament Commission Concludes Debate
Disarmament Commission
2011 Substantive Session
312th ; 313th Meetings (AM ; PM)
2.Atieno A,2011 disarmament in post conflict zones: comparative analysis of mozambique and sierra leone
2. Institute of diplomacy and international studies disarmament in post conflict zones: comparative analysis of Mozambique and Sierra Leone lynette florence anyango otieno r5 0/70047/2011
a research project submitted in partial fulfillmentof the degree of master of arts in international studies november 2013
3. Mcminn k.2015, Candid Voices from the Field:Obstacles to a Transformative Women, Peace and Security Agenda and to Women’s Meaningful Participation in Building Peace and Security
3.Candid Voices from the Field: Obstacles to a Transformative Women, Peace & Security Agenda & to Women’s Meaningful Participation in Building Peace ; Security
Author: K. McMinn
Publisher: Women Peacemakers Program
Publication Date: Jan 2015

4.United Nations general Assembly 2th June 2006 ,on illicit small arms trade in africa fuels conflict, contributes to poverty 5. Kytömäki E.2003, Implementing the United NationsProgramme of Action on Small Armsand Light Weapons:Analysis of Reports Submitted by States in 2003
5. Kytömäki, Wayne Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of Reports Submitted by States in 2003,pg 17-29, UNIDIR
United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research
Geneva, Switzerland
Implementing the United Nations
Programme of Action on Small Arms
and Light Weapons:
Analysis of Reports Subm
itted by States in 2003
Elli Kytömäki
Valerie Yankey-Wayne
United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research
Geneva, Switzerland

6.Knorpf J.2018, After diffusion: Challenges to enforcing nonproliferation and disarmament norms6.Knorpf Journal Contemporary Security Policy Volume 39, 2018 – Issue 3: Special issue: Nuclear norms in global governance ,pgs 367-392


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