ADVANCES IN MOLECULAR DIAGONOSTICWith the emerging diseases people meet healthcare problems due to research in molecular diagnostic standard tools started working.As a result cause treatment and prognosis of disease well known.now a days methods that are applied are new sequencing method,biomarker assays,microfluids,biosensors etc.Advanced methods for M.tuberculosis for molecular resistant testing are line probe assays,PCR like ,real time polymerase chain reaction and pyrosequencing.
in line probe assay the products of pcr are reverse hybridize for the mutatin detection that is the cause of resistance.The line probe eassay is fast and exact diagnostic tool.the RIF resistance is diagnosed when the mutation is in the Rifampicin resistane determining reigon.this is in the gene named rpo.
In the molecular beacon based technique beacon probes are use for hybridization.beacons emit fluorescent signals. The absence of these signals shows mutation.
MDR TB is detected with high sensitivity and specificity by the Molecular beacon base assays.xpert MTB is highly advanced drug resistance diagnosis.The pyrosequencing technique use the synthesis of ATP.The sequencing is due to the synthesis.
this ATP helps in the generation of light .This light use for reaction named luciferase.The pyrosequencing is in less cost and processing is also simple.Advances in molecular diagnosis are due to the development of many new techniques.
The detection and quantification of bacterial pathogens in whole blood as well as plasma is possible due to real time pcr.It quantifies the presence of total bacterial DNA in whole blood.Pentaplex pcr detects and differentiates the shigella species Clostridium difficile by multiplex pcr is detected .it is also cost effective method.
Microsphere suspension array is use for Hendra and Nipha virus studies. The result of this technique are specific and sensitive.The generic microfluid device works for the detection of nucleic acid and antibodies in oral Fluids.
The viral RNA and human antibodies both are detected at the same time.In the diagnosis of early prostate cancer by the cell free DNA . marker for early diagnosis is fucosylated glycans. The mass spectrometric studies are conducted .tumour markers are use for the detection of progression and also for prognosis.The nucleic acid amplification test by different techniques amplify target genes .These methods are as follows PCR,Transcriptional mediated amplification TMA nucleic acid sequence based amplification standard displacement amplification and loop mediated amplificationFor the diagnosis of MDR TB True array use in these days .This method detects the difference between MTB with respect to Mycobacterium Avium This is done by PCR reaction using single tube .Microarray products produced by capital biocarp are use for determining the resistance of Rifampicin By next generation sequencing technique large DNA data is handled .it is also cost effective.The use of shot gun sequencing method with next generation detects MTCB.Instead of genotyping sequences it is most reliable method of detection .The development of optimized allele TARMS PCRWorks in short time and also easily affordable technique .The advance techniques are able to detect the treatment response in disease that are cause by many factors and in people that belong to different areas.Advancement in sequencer generation resulted in complete studies of transcriptomes exomes and genomes.so that new studies that are due to genes are easily detetected.The advances in diagnostic is helpful in the early treatment of sexually transmtted infection Nucleic acid amplification is responsible for early treatment .The diagnosis of antimicrobial resistance is possible by real time PCRPcr fluorescent in situ hybridization techniques are used now days for detection of malaria