Adolescents (Mathibe, 2015). Parenting styles practices are

AdolescentsAdolescence is atransition period from childhood to adulthood spanning between ages 10 to 18years. (Satrock, 2013).  A period beginning with the onset ofpuberty and ending with individuals assume adult roles and responsibilities(Baron and Misra, 2014).

  It is marked bydevelopmental stages identified with significant physical, cognitive, socialand emotional changes. Late adolescents being from the 17-18 years of age.  Perceived Parenting stylePerceived parenting style is definedas the judgment of adolescents or children about the styles of parentingpractices during their childhood. It is the child perception of the parents andtheir behaviour and attitude towards them. (Mathibe, 2015). Parenting stylespractices are specific behaviours used by parents to socialize their children.

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They refer to a constellation of attitudes towards the child, communicated tothem, creating an emotional climate in which parents behaviours are expression(Tahil, 2014). They have an influence on child outcome. Baumrind (1968)categorized parents according to whether they are high or low on demandingnessand responsiveness which creates the four parenting styles, Authoritative,Authoritarian, Permissive and Neglectful.Authoritative.

Refers to parents who try to directthe adolescents activities in a rational, issue oriented manner. This style ofparenting is characterized by warmth and encourages verbal give and take. Theyset clear standards for conduct and uses reason, power, and shaping by regimeto reinforce conduct.

Authoritarian. Refers to parenting attempt toshape, control, and evaluate the behaviour and attitudes of the child withinabsolute set standards. They value obedience as a virtue and may use punitiveand forceful measure to curb self-will.Permissive. This style is characterized byparents who behave in a non-punitive, acceptant and affirmative manner towardsthe child’s desires and actions. Allows the child to regulate her ownactivities and does not exercise control nor encourage obedience to externallydefined standards.Negligent. These parents take an uncontrollingapproach and tend to be lax.

They do not engage with their children nor do theydevote energy to the children’s upbringing and rearing ParentalResponsiveness. Refers to how sensitive, supportive, and involved parents are.Parental Demandingness.

Is the extent towhich parents hold high expectations about their children’s behaviour andmonitor and supervise their activities? Resilience.Resilience can be defined as reducedvulnerability to environmental risk experiences, the overcoming of a stress oradversity, or a relatively good outcome despite risk experiences (Rutter,2006).  As defined by Connor and Davidsonresilience is the ability to cope with stress and varies with context, time,age, gender and culture. Stream of study.

Stream of study refers to the academic branch selected bythe adolescent at the end of their 10th standard. This streambecomes the focus of study in their 11th -12th. Thestreams depend on the board of examination mainly; State board (Pre UniversityCollege), Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), Indian CertificateSecondary Education (ICSE) and the International Baccalaureate (IB). The boardsdiffer in syllabi, structure and methods of teaching. The students can choosefrom one of the following streams; Science, Commerce or humanities. For thepurpose for this research the researcher will focus on the Science andhumanities stream for standard 12th students in the CBSE board. Humanities stream.

Academic discipline which dealswith the study of the human condition and includes subjects like History,Geography, Political Science, Psychology, Sociology, languages, Anthropology,Human resources and journalism This is the widest stream of studies.Science stream. This is field is related tomedical and engineering, with subjects    likePhysics, Chemistry, Mathematics and Biology Computer Science, Home Science.

SampleSampleDescription.The present study proposes a sample of late adolescents ranging from age 17-18years (Santrock, 2013), who are in the 12th standard studying pursuingScience and Humanities streams, under the CBSE Examination board. An equalnumber of males and females would be approached, for current study. The sampleframe would be adolescents from the state of Karnataka. SamplingSize. The samplesize would be 120 adolescents ranging from 17-18 years of age.

  An equal distribution of 30 males and 30 femalesfrom the science stream and 30 males and females from the humanities stream. SamplingMethod.  The design would take on non probabilityconvenience and purposive sampling methods.

Convenience sampling uses samples whoare available to the researcher by virtue of accessibility (Bryman, 2012).Purposive is selected based on the characteristics of the population and theobjectives of the study.   Inclusion Criteria 1.     Thestudy would include both males and females belonging to the age group of 17-18years of age2.     Thesample would also include those adolescents in the 12 standard3.     Adolescentspursuing Science and Humanities streams4.     Adolescentsin the care of both mother and father5.

     OnlyIndian nationals Exclusion Criteria 1.     Thestudy would exclude adolescent residing in the hostel or boarding schools.2.

     Adolescentswho are illiterate3.     Adolescentswhose parents are separated4.     Adolescentswhose parents are divorced 6months prior the study5.     Adolescentswhose parents are have died 6 months prior the study Tools for Data Collection SocioDemographic Sheet.The socio demographic sheet will contain the following information.

Name, Age,Gender, Email ID, Family annual Income, Mother’s profession, Father’sprofession, stream of study, no. of siblings, Living with both parents   QuestionnairesThe scale of ParentingStyle by Abdul Gafoor K & Abidha Kurukkan developed in 2014. Which measures the fourparenting styles proposed by Baumrind (1971) namely authoritative,authoritarian, permissive and negligent are scaled based on a quadrant of highand low levels of parental responsiveness and control suggested by Maccoby andMartin (1983).

The items are constructed on socio-cultural and educationalcircumstances of adolescent students in Kerala, India. The validity coefficientis found that 0.80 for responsiveness and 0.

76 for control subscale. Thetest-retest coefficient of reliability of responsiveness variable in the scaleis 0.81 and for control it is 0.

83.Connor-DavidsonResilience Scale (CD-RISC). The CD-RISC is a 25 item scale developed byConnor and Davidson (2003) to measure resilience. It uses a five point Likertresponse format ranging from zero (not true at all) to four (true nearly allthe time), with a total score range from 0 to 100. The internal consistency is0.89, the test retest reliability is 0.

87. The convergent validity is found tobe 0.83 when correlated with the Korbasa hardiness scales.  Procedurefor Data Collection. The researcher would identify theschools to include in the study followed by a face to face meeting with theprincipal, in which the purpose and process will be explained. Upon agreementthe informed consent of the schools and the participants will be taken. Allparticipants contacted voluntarily agreed to participate in the study.

Participants meeting the criterion for inclusion will be briefed regarding thestudy and their socio-demographic details. Instructions for questionnaire willbe given to the participants and the duly filled questionnaires will becollected.Procedure for Data Analysis.  The data will be collected uponcompletion, scored and interpreted according to the norms. Using thestatistical Package of the Social Sciences (SPSS 22) software will be used tocompute these calculations. For hypothesis 1 Correlation and Regression testwould be used.

For hypothesis 2, 3, 4 a multivariate analysis of variance(MANOVA) will be used for analysis.Ethical Consideration. Informed consent will be taken fromapproached participant of the study. A consent form will be prepared for thispurpose. The assent document should clearly state circumstances under whichconfidentiality between researchers and participants and inform them of theirvoluntary participation. If the distinction is not made clear from the start,participants may disclose personal information.


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