According to Nies, and McEwen (2015), Community/Publichealth focuses on health and wellness.
The goal is to prevent disease through prevention.Primary prevention focuses on the educating and or providing resources to thecommunity to prevent illness, disease, and premature death by targeting the vulnerablepopulation with the intent the elimination of risk factors. The focus is communitybased, thus the term community nursing (p 7). Hospital based nursing focusingtreatment of acute illnesses with the intent to restore the patient back to baseline,and or manage symptoms. Although education on disease management occurs duringthe discharge planning process of a hospital stay and continues up throughdischarge, this is not the same education that occurs with community health nurses,who may make several trips to a patient’s home to make sure the patient has anunderstanding as well as all of the necessary community resources that thepatient needs in order to prevent further illness. According to American NursesAssociation (2013), the second focus of public/community health is secondaryprevention which focus on early detection with quick interventions before thesigns and symptoms appear and targets the population that have risk factors (p2).
In hospital based nurses does teach their patient’s to look out for signsand symptoms of disease exacerbation and other probable issues that can besecondary to the original illness (such as teaching of signs and symptoms ofinfection after surgery) to contact their primary care physician right away,but this is not the same as with public health’s secondary prevention. Lastly, public/communitynursing focus of tertiary prevention. This focuses on rehabilitation. Thisoccurs after the disease process has occurred and the focus is to limit thedisability effect of the disease and to get the patient back to as close tobaseline as possible.
It’s important to remember that hospital nurses communityis limited to the patients admitted to the hospital and public/community nurses’community is based on a geographical location.I am a home health nurse, and in my practice, myprimary focus is prevention, education and teaching. I educate my patient’sabout disease management, safety, medication management and other needs. Thegoal of my interventions are to prevent the patient from being re-admitted tothe hospital, have the patient’s savvy enough to understand their disease processes,and to be able to recognize any signs and symptoms of exacerbation and to knowwhen to contact their primary care physician, as well as to provide my patient’swith the community resources they need so that they will be able to function attheir best level of health.