According politics. The impacted of it mainly is

According to Oxford dictionary Multiethnic is defined as involving or pertaining to two or more distinct ethic groups. China had a wide range of territory once up to 60% of the Asian continent, and now there are 55 distinct minority culture groups and 1 major culture group in PRC, this formed a distinctness of China. Multiethnic no wonder caused a significant impact towards Chinese society, politics and culture. Thus, what impact and how it was made to China, also how it relates to Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties became the question that will be discussed in this essay. To what I have concerned multiethnic is the cause of Instability of now days society, both diversity in culture and diminishing in Chinese traditional culture, also the distinctness in China politics. The impacted of it mainly is a negative influence towards the Chinese society.To further analyze the problem a general introduction is made about these dynastiesSong Song Dynasty was the peak of the Chinese society, it is the first nation that government released authorized banknotes or paper money in the world history. It was an era of administrative sophistication and complex social organization2. Song Dynasty handicrafts and industrial manufactory had achieved a high standard.Song Dynasty possesses a characteristic that it does not inhibit the business ?which is quite different from other times. In addition?Song Dynasty also achieves a great success on its agriculture ?which manifests in the blow of its agriculture. For instance?rice was grown more and more flourish than before due to plentiful water and enough sunshine4. The last but most important thing is that Song Taize?Zhao Kuangyin?also revolutionized the examination system in China.”Taizu established the final examination in the imperial palace to verify the rankings and had ordered the list of successful competitors to be announced publicly until 973.”5  Yuan Yuan Dynasty, was the first of two-time periods where the entire area of China was ruled by minorities, which by the Mongols. It ended hundreds of years of dispute in China after Tang Dynasty and reunified the country1. In culture, the achievements were the development of drama named Yuan drama and novels and the increased use of the written dialect. In handicraft industry, the birth of  blue-and-white ware that mainly consists of porcelain and blue underglaze.  The blue-and-white ware became very popular and attract Western collectors’ attention.6 Ming Ming Dynasty was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic Hans. It was another peak in China’s dynastic history, a magnificent period in the history of Chinese traditional culture, and the period of transformation in traditional Chinese society, during the end of Ming dynasty capitalism occurred. The greatest diplomatic highlight of the Ming Dynasty was the seven voyages to the western ocean led by Zheng He. Beginning in 1405, entrusted his favored eunuch commander Zheng He as the admiral for a gigantic new fleet of ships designated for international tributary missions. It, however, in Ming dynasty, the government tightened up the political prospective in the public, Imperial guards of the Ming Dynasty,Jinyiwei,which eventually became a sort of Secret Troops that is the first formal appearance in China history. Jinyiwei is formally founded by Hongwu Emperor in 1368 to collect all the information from ministers to common people in order to ensure the Kingdom’s domination. It means that Jinweiyi was authorized to arrest,investigate and interrogate almost everyone including emperor’s relatives. Also, Ming’s another characteristic is the eunuch politics. Ming Dynasty has a great amount of eunuches holding great power like Wei Zhongxian. 7Before he holds such a great power, he is nothing but more than a gambler.Specifically, there is a facility named silijian being responsible for assisting the king to make great decisions. QingQing Dynasty, the last dynasty in Chinese history, was established by the Manchu. Near the end of Qing Dynasty, many intellectuals kept pursuing a way out for the country. In 1840, Britain started the First Opium War against China, and forced the Qing Dynasty to sign the first of many unequal treaties with them beginning with the “Nanjing Treaty”. Learning from Britain, France and America also forced the Qing Dynasty to sign another two unequal treaties called the “Treaty of Whampoa”. Thereafter, the door to China was forced open by the great western powers. The essay will now be divided into three parts to specify the impact was made to Chinese culture, society and politics.Culture and societyWith the fifth largest area of territory in the world, and its unique location in Eurasia, China now is composed by 55 distinct minority culture groups and Han majority. This undoubtedly let China become a culture-diverse nation, various of distinct culture groups simultaneous exist in the nation. Take Muslims as an example. By the Yuan dynasty ended, the remaining Mongols as well as the Muslims and their descendants mostly changed their names into Chinese names and became part of the diverse cultural world of China. During the following Ming rule, Muslims truly adopted Chinese culture. Most became fluent in Chinese and adopted Chinese names and the capital, Nanjing, became a center of Islamic learning3. As a result, the Muslims became “outwardly indistinguishable” from the ChineseIt, however, a negative impact appeared which is the diminishing of the traditional culture exists in now days society. As far as I concerned the main reason that caused the problem is due to the negation of the Chinese tradition and the Westernization of Chinese culture in Qing dynasty. During the flourishing period of the Qing Dynasty, most of the intellects were in a very sorry plight of both material and spiritual life, due to the examination system and the tight control in thoughts. Through the Qing dynasty, word prison is applied throughout the nation, it is the imprisonment or execution of an author for writing something considered offensive by the imperial court; literary inquisition; literary persecution. People will be arrested due to writing something politically wrong, which leads the unsustainability to the traditional Chinese culture. The westernized of Chinese even more leaded the diminishing of the culture.  Moreover, as China is a united and multi-national country, Chinese government now has adopted the policy of equality, unity and mutual assistance among different nationalities and respects and protects the religious freedom and customs of ethnic minorities. It, however, in the past the policy existed in the ancient dynasties was biased towards the ruler ethic group of the nation. In the time of the Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties rule, uprisings broke out incessantly on an ever-greater scale in the fight against feudal rule. During the Ming Dynasty, the best known of these were the great uprising started by the people of the Yi, Bai and Han, which involved more than 100,000 people, happened in Yunnan, the uprising by the people of the Yao in Datengxia, also of the Hui and Han led by Ma Shouying of the Hui ethnic group. Another example in Qing dynasty was the Taiping heavenly kingdom movement, Han people wanted the sovereignty back from the Manchu.The impact of instability of the society is significant it even become the problem that has an impact successes into now day’s society. The ambiguous policy made by this dynasties towards Tibet and Xinjiang leads the splitting of them from China, also caused the territory issue in Himalaya with India  Politics Chinese political state can be no wonder concluded by the word DISTINCTIVE. The best example is the occurrence of the special administrative regions in China, Hong Kong and Macao. Due to the signing of the Unequal treaty with Great Britain and Portege, Hong Kong and Macao had become colonized for 100 years. During 1990s the PRC government spent a great deal amount of effort made by both side to take care of the issue, and now while mainland china is in the socialism, these two regions are maintaining their capitalism.  The occur of the multiethnic in Song and Ming dynasty always be treated as invasion to the nation, thus army was trained in the borders and the great wall was also built, in Yuan and Qing, as the nation was not dominated by Han ethic group, the policy towards the minor ethnic group was much more lenient compare it with Han. The situation listed above had largely affected the attitude of Han ethnic group towards the minor ethnic group. As the Han ethnic group always holding the notion they are the ruler of the nation, bias towards the minor ethnic group happened from time to time. Chinese government, however, now has adopted the policy of equality, unity and mutual assistance among different nationalities and respects and protects the religious freedom and customs of ethnic minorities. Conclusion In conclusion, the impact of governments’ attitude and actions of these dynasties towards multiethnic had a significant impact towards the Chinese society and built up the modern Chinese society. It, however, the impact of the multiethnic were not all negative impact and have something to do with the society. Take the great wall as an example, it was built in Song and Ming dynasty with the initiative of defensing the invasion rom the nomadic group from the north. Thousands of days later, now, it, however, is an invaluable asset to the chinse society. Chinese government now has adopted the policy of equality, unity and mutual assistance among different nationalities and respects and protects the religious freedom and customs of ethnic minorities.


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