AbstractThis exercise, then a condition called atherosclerosis develops.

AbstractThis paper includes the studies of techniques used to prevent, treat and nutritional or surgical therapies used for Coronary artery disease. This paper also outlines some of the causes and possible threats of having this disease. Coronary artery disease is a big problem, and is the leading cause of death for both men and women. More than half of the deaths due to heart disease in 2009 were in men (Barclay, 2013). Some types of Coronary artery disease are not harmful, but can later develop buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries into possible acute coronary syndrome or ST elevation myocardial infarction.

 It is important for people to understand the risks of this disease, and people should take proper care of themselves in order to prevent it. This paper also outlines the common techniques for diagnosing Coronary Artery Disease, which include Electrocardiogram (ECG), Echocardiogram, Stress test, Cardiac catheterization or angiogram, or Heart scan (Mayo Clinic staff, 2017).The heart is a complicated structure full of ventricles, valves, atriums, and many other objects that all help us to live and breathe.

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 When a person doesn’t treat their body well, they find that their body won’t be able to function nearly as well as if they did treat their heart well.  One of the most common heart diseases is Coronary Artery Disease (CAD).  CAD is a result of lack of exercise and a poor diet.  When a person doesn’t control their diet with healthy food, get the right nutrition or exercise, then a condition called atherosclerosis develops. Atherosclerosis is a buildup of cholesterol plaque in the walls of arteries causing obstruction of blood flow. Plaques may rupture causing acute occlusion of the artery by clot.

Atherosclerosis often has no symptoms until a plaque ruptures or the buildup is severe enough to block blood flow.  If the built up plaque isn’t taken care of, then the blood vessels could become inflamed, causing the risk of blood clots and heart attacks to increase. Sometimes, a narrowed artery may develop new blood vessels to bypass the blockage to get blood to the heart. When exercise or increased stress occurs, not enough oxygenated blood is reach the heart.  When the heart doesn’t get enough oxygenated blood, or an artery becomes clogged, a heart attack can occur. There are many different types of CAD. Some plagues never obstruct the coronary blood flow and are asymptomatic.

The people that do have symptoms, could have stable, acute coronary syndrome, or ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction. Stable angina is a is chest pain or discomfort that most often occurs with activity or emotional stress, and is due to poor blood flow through the blood vessels in the heart. This condition is not a clinical emergency. If a plague suddenly ruptures, it causes the clotting of the artery, known as coronary thrombosis.  Acute coronary syndrome(ACS) is a syndrome due to decreased blood flow in the coronary arteries such that part of the heart muscle is unable to function properly or dies. ACS causes Non ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction(NSTEMI)  or unstable angina.

NSTEMI is a type of heart attack.  ST refers to the ST segment, which is part of the ECG (electrocardiogram)  heart tracing used to diagnose a heart, and means it is abnormally high above the baseline. Unstable angina means that blockages in the arteries supplying your heart with blood and oxygen have reached a critical level. The affected person has chest pain even at rest. If left untreated, unstable angina can lead to heart attack, heart failure, or arrhythmias (irregular heart rhythms). These can be life-threatening conditions.

In contrast, when the thrombosis completely occludes the vessel, the myocardium is injured and  ST-Elevation Myocardial infarction develops(STEMI).  ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction(STEMI) is a very serious type of heart attack during which one of the heart’s major arteries is blocked. Some symptoms of coronary artery disease are Chest pain or angina. You may feel pressure or tightness in your chest, this pain is called angina (mentioned earlier). Angina usually occurs on the middle or left side of the chest. Angina is triggered by emotional or physical stress. When the stress is stopped, usually the pain stops as well.

You may also feel a shortness of breath  because your heart can’t pump enough blood to meet the demands of your body. Or a heart attack may occur  when an artery is completely blocked. The classic signs and symptoms of a heart attack include crushing pressure in your chest and pain in your shoulder or arm, sometimes with shortness of breath and sweating. Sometimes a heart attack can occur with no signs or symptoms.

There are many causes and risk factors for Coronary Artery Disease, which include Age(simply getting older can increase risk of narrow or damaged arteries),sex, family history, smoking, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol levels, diabetic, overweight or obesity, physical inactivity or high stress (Mayo Clinic staff, 2017). Sometimes Coronary Artery Disease develops without any classic risk factors. For diagnosis, your doctor may suggest a variety of tests such as  Electrocardiogram (ECG), Echocardiogram, Stress test, Cardiac catheterization or angiogram, or Heart scan.  An electrocardiogram records electrical signals as they travel through your heart and  can often reveal evidence of a previous heart attack or one that’s in progress. An Echocardiogram uses sound waves to produce images of your heart. During an echocardiogram, your doctor can determine whether all parts of the heart wall are contributing normally to your heart’s pumping activity. Stress test. If your signs and symptoms occur most often during exercise, your doctor may ask you to walk on a treadmill or ride a stationary bike during an ECG.

This is called an exercise stress test. In some cases, medication to stimulate your heart may be used instead of exercise. Cardiac catheterization or angiogram.  A dye is injected into your coronary arteries to view the blood flow in your heart. This is known as an angiogram.

A heart scan or  Computerized tomography (CT) help your doctor see calcium deposits in your arteries If a substantial amount of calcium is discovered, coronary artery disease may be likely. Coronary heart disease treatments include lifestyle changes, medicines, surgeries, and cardiac rehabilitation. Cardiac rehabilitation to help improve the function of the heart. Lifestyle changes include maintaining diet, weight, physical exercise and stress, and no smoking. Patients should eat lots of healthy foods low in fat, such as low fat dairy products, fruits, legumes vegetables and whole grains. Patients should avoid eating sugary foods or drinks, a lot of red meat, and palm or coconut oils. Patients should also limit alcohol consumption to a minimum.

Patients should try to get at least 2-3 hours of exercise a week, the more active you are the more beneficial it is. Medicine is required when the lifestyle changes aren’t enough in controlling blood cholesterol. These medicines decrease blood cholesterol and lower your chance of having a stroke or heart attack. If medications aren’t sufficient, surgery or medical procedure may be required. The most common medical procedure is called Percutaneous Coronary Intervention. In this procedure, a thin flexible tube usually with a balloon on the end, is inserted into a the blocked coronary artery. Once inside the balloon is inflated to compress the plague against the artery wall. During the procedure, a doctor may put a stent in the artery, which helps prevent blockage.

Another treatment is Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting. The arteries or veins are used to bypass the blocked artery.


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