Abstract: two different terminologies use to delineate the

Abstract:
As a multivariate data mining technique “cluster analysis” able to identify as a key analytical tool in diverse arena. This paper intends to provide a profound collection of information for researchers and practitioners in simple manner understanding of cluster analysis through the theoretical background. Text books on cluster analysis and research articles employees cluster analysis as main structural analysis were reviewed as the methodology. Under the revealed information researchers need to play a greater attention to guidelines concerning the use and reporting of cluster analysis as the practitioners.
Key words: Cluster analysis, distance, multivariate, data mining, algorithms

1. INTRODUCTION

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Cluster analysis is one kind of an exploratory analysis technique that can use to identify the structures with in data. A collection of data objects can be define as a cluster (Everitt et al, 2011). Usually with similar to one another object within the same group and the dissimilar to the objects in other group can be clearly identify as a cluster (Leonard & Peter, 2009). Thus finding similarities between data according to the specific characteristics in the data set and grouping similar data into clusters can be define as cluster analysis (Charles, 2004). Segmentation analysis or Taxonomy analysis are two different terminologies use to delineate the cluster analysis (Manly, 2005). That statistical method, tries to identify homogeneous clusters of cases if the grouping is not defined. As a multivariate data mining technique “cluster analysis” does not make any difference between dependent and independent variables that minimize complex multivariate data into smaller meaningful subsets. More specifically the technique comprises with a number of different types of algorithms. The methods usually that can used for clustering objects of similar kind into separate classifications (Kaufman at al, 1990). The main goal of the cluster analysis technique is to organize observed data into a meaningful structure.
As a tool of data mining cluster analysis is used to discover the concealed structures or relationships within data (Michaud, 1997). And also to acquire a quick outline of data though the effective visualization as in cluster analysis can help review the data quality. Therefore cluster analysis represents a remarkable analytical tool for different subject areas. Mainly in social sciences, health science (Cattle, 1943) finance and marketing, engineering and planning sectors, insurance field and etc. Hereafter, the applied cluster analysis is evolving in field of research significantly. According to that, the main purpose of the study is to deliberate the theoretical background and provide a sound understand of cluster analysis for researchers.

2. BACKGROUND OF CLUSTER ANALYSIS
Cluster analysis as a multivariate statistical procedure is generally applied for data mining through applying in different fields of pattern recognition, machine learning, image analysis, bio formats, information retrieval, marketing and business analysis, social behavioral analysis and data comparisons (Charles, 2004). Cluster analysis has origins in anthropology dating back more than eighty years through the work of Driver and Krober in 1932 and introduced to psychology by Zubin in 1938 (Blashfield, 1976).

3. TYPES OF CLUSTERING
To minimize and maximize the intra-cluster distance is the main objective of clustering (Michaud, 1997). According to that one of a significant perception in cluster analysis is the types of clusters.
If the population clusters are sufficiently and well disjointed practically any clustering method can accomplish well. Hence a cluster is set of points such that any point in cluster is related to every point in the cluster than to any point not in the cluster.
Center based cluster type is also commonly used in the field of biology (Blashfield & Aldenderfer, 1978). The center of the cluster is often a centroid. In a Custer the average of all the points is the most repetitive point that can practice to compare the other types of clusters. These are very efficient for clustering large data base.
Density based clustering is another type of clusters. A cluster is a dense region of points, which is separated by low-density regions from other regions of high density (Gan et al, 2007). This method is used when the outliers are present and the clusters are irregular at any kind of form.
Contiguous cluster is a set of points such that a point in a cluster is nearer to one or more other points which in the cluster than to any point not in the cluster (Kaufman at al, 1990). An additional conceptual clusters compute entitled as shared property. These type of clusters are accomplished of generating hierarchical category structure.
Not only that but also the clusters defined by an objective function also can identify as an outstanding type. A cluster that can minimize or maximize an objective function find in this situation (Anderberg, 1973). Calculate all probable methods of dividing the points into clusters. When estimate the goodness of each potential set of clusters can be obtain by using the given objective function (Parsons, 2004).
If the researcher could be able to use a good clustering method it will procedure high quality clusters. The quality of clustering results depends on both the similarity measure used by the method and its implementation. And also measured by its capability to determine the hidden patterns inside the clusters.

4. DISTANCE BETWEEN CLUSTERS
Distance between the clusters termed as the selections are between groups linkage in the average distance of all data points within the clusters (Michaud, 1997). The distance between clusters can be identify through the distance metric properties. A distance metric defined as a function of d that takes as arguments two points x and y in an n-dimensional space R^n and should follow the properties such as symmetry, positivity and tringle inequality (Kaufman at al, 1990). The property reflects the fact that the distance between two points should be measured along the shortest route. The distance between x and y can computed in following ways.

4.1 EUCLIDEAN DISTANCE
The distance takes into account both direction and the magnitude of the vectors. The Euclidean distance between two n-dimensional vectors x=(x_1,x_2,….x_n) and y=(y_1,y_2,….y_n) is

d_(E (x,y))=?(?(x_1-y_1)?^2+?(x_2-y_2)?^2+?+?(x_n-y_n)?^2 )
d_(E (x,y))=?(?_(i=i)^n??(x_i-y_i)?^2 )

The squared Euclidean distance between two n-dimensional vectors (Charles, 2004).

d_(E^2 (x,y))=?(x_1-y_1)?^2+?(x_2-y_2)?^2+?+?(x_n-y_n)?^2
d_(E^2 (x,y))=?_(i=i)^n??(x_i-y_i)?^2

Euclidean distance is evident towards to provide more weights to the outliers due to the lack of the square root (Kaufman at al, 1990). The standardized Euclidean distance between two n-dimensional vectors.

d_(SE (x,y))=?(1/?s_1?^2 ?(x_1-y_1)?^2+?+?1/?s_n?^2 (x_n-y_n)?^2 )
d_(SE(x,y))=?(?_(i=i)^n?? 1/?s_i?^2 (x_i-y_i)?^2 )

Uses the notion of weighting each dimension by a quantity inversely proportional to the amount of variability along the dimension.

4.2 MAHHATTAN DISTANCE
Mahhattan distance represents the space measure along directions that are parallel to x and y axis.

d_(M (x,y))=|x_1-y_1 |+|x_2-y_2 |+?+|x_n-y_n |
d_(M (x,y))=?_(i=i)^n?|x_i-y_i |

Where |x_i-y_i | represent the absolute value of the difference betweenx_i and y_i.

4.3 CHEBYCHEV DISTANCE
Chebychev distance basically picks the largest difference between any two corresponding coordinates. The main objective of this method is to replicate is there any immense difference between two n-dimensional vectors.

d_(max (x,y))=?max?_i |x_i-y_i |

The dimension is very sensitive to outlying measurements and robust of small amount of noise (Binder, 1978).

4.4 COSINE SIMILARITY
Cosine similarity takes into the interpretation with only the angle and discards the magnitude. The distance between two n-dimensional vectors is,
d_(? (x,y))=cos(?)=(x.y)/(?x?.?y? )

Where ?x?=?(?_(i=1)^n?x_i^2 )

4.5 CORRELATION DISTANCE

The Pearson correlation distance computes the distance of each point from the linear regression line and will take the values between 0 and 2 (Blashfield & Aldenderfer, 1978). The distance between two n-dimensional vectors is,
d_(R (x,y))=1-?_xy

Where ?_xy is the Pearson correlation coefficient of the vectors x and y.

4.6 MANHATTAN DISTANCE
Manhattan distance reduce the distance of classical Euclidean distance. The distance between n-dimensional vectors,

d_(M1 (x,y))=?((x_1-y_1 )^T s^(-1) (x-y))

Where “s” is any n×m positive definite matrix (x_1-y_1 )^T is the transformation of
(x-y). Usually this “s” matrix is the covariance matrix of the dataset. If the space wrapping matrix 5 is taken to be the identity matrix (Blashfield & Aldenderfer, 1978).

4.7 MINKOWSKI DISTANCE

Minkowski distance is the method of the generalization of Euclidean and Manhattan distance. The distance between n-dimensional vectors,
d_(M.k (x,y))={|x_1-y_1 |^m+?+|x_n-y_n |^m }^(1/m)
d_(M.k (x,y))={?_(i=1)^n?|x_i-y_i |^m }^(1/m)

Where x^(1?m)=?(m&x) note that m=1 the distance reduces to Manhattan distance. Simple sum of the absolute differences. For m=2 the Minkowski distance use to reduces to Euclidean distance (Binder, 1978).

The different types of variables mixed together could be able to identify as the practical scenario. For that purpose any of the distance that identify in above can be reformed by applying a weighting scheme which reflects the variance. Generally it is necessary to standardize and normalize objects in order to compute (Anderberg, 1973). The distance matric has highly depended by the clustering. Through the changes of the distance matric may affect the number and membership of the clusters as well as the relationship between them theatrically.

5. REQUIREMENTS OF CLUSTERING IN DATA MINING
Interval – scaled, binary, nominal, ordinal and ratio or mixed type variables can be classified as the types of variables of cluster analysis. But mainly which cluster analysis is to be done selected by keeping the past research in mind, theoretical approach, hypothesis being tested and the judgement of the researcher.
Under the requirements of clustering in data mining at first should focus on the scalability. Many clustering algorithms work well on small data sets containing fewer than several number of data objects. Therefor the need highly scalable clustering algorithms to deal with large database (Blashfield & Aldenderfer, 1978).
Ability to deal with different types of attributes is another major requirement. Algorithms should be capable to be applied on any kind of data such as interval based data, categorical and binary.
Discovery of clusters with arbitrary shape is additional requirement. The clustering algorithm should be capable to detecting clusters of arbitrary shape.
High dimensionality is one of a key requirement. The clustering algorithm should not only be able to adjust with low-dimensional data but also with the high-dimensional space.
When concern the requirement of ability to deal with noisy data that explains through the data sensitivity (Charles, 2004). Database contain the noisy, missing or erroneous data. Some algorithms are sensitive to those kind of data and may lead to poor quality clusters.
The clustering results should be interpretable, comparable and usable. And also many algorithms have need of uses to provide base knowledge in the form of input parameters.
Not only that major requirements but also should focus the ability to handle dynamic data , insensitive to order of input records and combination of user specified constraints as requirements of clustering in data mining.

6. CLUSTER APPROACHES

There are different types of cluster approaches that can use to analysis in different types of fields. Partitioning algorithms is very popular as a cluster approach (Parsons et al, 2004).
To create a hierarchy decomposition of the set of data using some criterion is under the hierarchy algorithms. Based on connectivity and density function the density-based define as a one of a major approach. Based on a multiple-level structure define in grid-based approach. The model-based approach is a common model is hypothesized for each of the clusters and the idea is to find the best fit of that model to each other (Blashfield & Aldenderfer, 1978). Frequent-pattern based approach is based on the analysis of frequent patterns. As a final point the user constraint based approach is use to cluster by consider user specified or application.

7. CONCLUSIONS
The clustering is identify as is grouping similar data in similar groups. Greater than the similarity within the group and greater difference between the groups more distinct the clustering. For taxonomy description while data interpretation by hypothesis generation and finally identification of the relationship identify as the core objectives of the cluster analysis. That designed by after formulating a problem and then have to select the proper distance measure to find the appropriate clustering procedure. Subsequently deciding the number of clusters should interpret the profile to assess the validity of clustering.

Abstract:
As a multivariate data mining technique “cluster analysis” able to identify as a key analytical tool in diverse arena. This paper intends to provide a profound collection of information for researchers and practitioners in simple manner understanding of cluster analysis through the theoretical background. Text books on cluster analysis and research articles employees cluster analysis as main structural analysis were reviewed as the methodology. Under the revealed information researchers need to play a greater attention to guidelines concerning the use and reporting of cluster analysis as the practitioners.
Key words: Cluster analysis, distance, multivariate, data mining, algorithms

1. INTRODUCTION

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Cluster analysis is one kind of an exploratory analysis technique that can use to identify the structures with in data. A collection of data objects can be define as a cluster (Everitt et al, 2011). Usually with similar to one another object within the same group and the dissimilar to the objects in other group can be clearly identify as a cluster (Leonard & Peter, 2009). Thus finding similarities between data according to the specific characteristics in the data set and grouping similar data into clusters can be define as cluster analysis (Charles, 2004). Segmentation analysis or Taxonomy analysis are two different terminologies use to delineate the cluster analysis (Manly, 2005). That statistical method, tries to identify homogeneous clusters of cases if the grouping is not defined. As a multivariate data mining technique “cluster analysis” does not make any difference between dependent and independent variables that minimize complex multivariate data into smaller meaningful subsets. More specifically the technique comprises with a number of different types of algorithms. The methods usually that can used for clustering objects of similar kind into separate classifications (Kaufman at al, 1990). The main goal of the cluster analysis technique is to organize observed data into a meaningful structure.
As a tool of data mining cluster analysis is used to discover the concealed structures or relationships within data (Michaud, 1997). And also to acquire a quick outline of data though the effective visualization as in cluster analysis can help review the data quality. Therefore cluster analysis represents a remarkable analytical tool for different subject areas. Mainly in social sciences, health science (Cattle, 1943) finance and marketing, engineering and planning sectors, insurance field and etc. Hereafter, the applied cluster analysis is evolving in field of research significantly. According to that, the main purpose of the study is to deliberate the theoretical background and provide a sound understand of cluster analysis for researchers.

2. BACKGROUND OF CLUSTER ANALYSIS
Cluster analysis as a multivariate statistical procedure is generally applied for data mining through applying in different fields of pattern recognition, machine learning, image analysis, bio formats, information retrieval, marketing and business analysis, social behavioral analysis and data comparisons (Charles, 2004). Cluster analysis has origins in anthropology dating back more than eighty years through the work of Driver and Krober in 1932 and introduced to psychology by Zubin in 1938 (Blashfield, 1976).

3. TYPES OF CLUSTERING
To minimize and maximize the intra-cluster distance is the main objective of clustering (Michaud, 1997). According to that one of a significant perception in cluster analysis is the types of clusters.
If the population clusters are sufficiently and well disjointed practically any clustering method can accomplish well. Hence a cluster is set of points such that any point in cluster is related to every point in the cluster than to any point not in the cluster.
Center based cluster type is also commonly used in the field of biology (Blashfield & Aldenderfer, 1978). The center of the cluster is often a centroid. In a Custer the average of all the points is the most repetitive point that can practice to compare the other types of clusters. These are very efficient for clustering large data base.
Density based clustering is another type of clusters. A cluster is a dense region of points, which is separated by low-density regions from other regions of high density (Gan et al, 2007). This method is used when the outliers are present and the clusters are irregular at any kind of form.
Contiguous cluster is a set of points such that a point in a cluster is nearer to one or more other points which in the cluster than to any point not in the cluster (Kaufman at al, 1990). An additional conceptual clusters compute entitled as shared property. These type of clusters are accomplished of generating hierarchical category structure.
Not only that but also the clusters defined by an objective function also can identify as an outstanding type. A cluster that can minimize or maximize an objective function find in this situation (Anderberg, 1973). Calculate all probable methods of dividing the points into clusters. When estimate the goodness of each potential set of clusters can be obtain by using the given objective function (Parsons, 2004).
If the researcher could be able to use a good clustering method it will procedure high quality clusters. The quality of clustering results depends on both the similarity measure used by the method and its implementation. And also measured by its capability to determine the hidden patterns inside the clusters.

4. DISTANCE BETWEEN CLUSTERS
Distance between the clusters termed as the selections are between groups linkage in the average distance of all data points within the clusters (Michaud, 1997). The distance between clusters can be identify through the distance metric properties. A distance metric defined as a function of d that takes as arguments two points x and y in an n-dimensional space R^n and should follow the properties such as symmetry, positivity and tringle inequality (Kaufman at al, 1990). The property reflects the fact that the distance between two points should be measured along the shortest route. The distance between x and y can computed in following ways.

4.1 EUCLIDEAN DISTANCE
The distance takes into account both direction and the magnitude of the vectors. The Euclidean distance between two n-dimensional vectors x=(x_1,x_2,….x_n) and y=(y_1,y_2,….y_n) is

d_(E (x,y))=?(?(x_1-y_1)?^2+?(x_2-y_2)?^2+?+?(x_n-y_n)?^2 )
d_(E (x,y))=?(?_(i=i)^n??(x_i-y_i)?^2 )

The squared Euclidean distance between two n-dimensional vectors (Charles, 2004).

d_(E^2 (x,y))=?(x_1-y_1)?^2+?(x_2-y_2)?^2+?+?(x_n-y_n)?^2
d_(E^2 (x,y))=?_(i=i)^n??(x_i-y_i)?^2

Euclidean distance is evident towards to provide more weights to the outliers due to the lack of the square root (Kaufman at al, 1990). The standardized Euclidean distance between two n-dimensional vectors.

d_(SE (x,y))=?(1/?s_1?^2 ?(x_1-y_1)?^2+?+?1/?s_n?^2 (x_n-y_n)?^2 )
d_(SE(x,y))=?(?_(i=i)^n?? 1/?s_i?^2 (x_i-y_i)?^2 )

Uses the notion of weighting each dimension by a quantity inversely proportional to the amount of variability along the dimension.

4.2 MAHHATTAN DISTANCE
Mahhattan distance represents the space measure along directions that are parallel to x and y axis.

d_(M (x,y))=|x_1-y_1 |+|x_2-y_2 |+?+|x_n-y_n |
d_(M (x,y))=?_(i=i)^n?|x_i-y_i |

Where |x_i-y_i | represent the absolute value of the difference betweenx_i and y_i.

4.3 CHEBYCHEV DISTANCE
Chebychev distance basically picks the largest difference between any two corresponding coordinates. The main objective of this method is to replicate is there any immense difference between two n-dimensional vectors.

d_(max (x,y))=?max?_i |x_i-y_i |

The dimension is very sensitive to outlying measurements and robust of small amount of noise (Binder, 1978).

4.4 COSINE SIMILARITY
Cosine similarity takes into the interpretation with only the angle and discards the magnitude. The distance between two n-dimensional vectors is,
d_(? (x,y))=cos(?)=(x.y)/(?x?.?y? )

Where ?x?=?(?_(i=1)^n?x_i^2 )

4.5 CORRELATION DISTANCE

The Pearson correlation distance computes the distance of each point from the linear regression line and will take the values between 0 and 2 (Blashfield & Aldenderfer, 1978). The distance between two n-dimensional vectors is,
d_(R (x,y))=1-?_xy

Where ?_xy is the Pearson correlation coefficient of the vectors x and y.

4.6 MANHATTAN DISTANCE
Manhattan distance reduce the distance of classical Euclidean distance. The distance between n-dimensional vectors,

d_(M1 (x,y))=?((x_1-y_1 )^T s^(-1) (x-y))

Where “s” is any n×m positive definite matrix (x_1-y_1 )^T is the transformation of
(x-y). Usually this “s” matrix is the covariance matrix of the dataset. If the space wrapping matrix 5 is taken to be the identity matrix (Blashfield & Aldenderfer, 1978).

4.7 MINKOWSKI DISTANCE

Minkowski distance is the method of the generalization of Euclidean and Manhattan distance. The distance between n-dimensional vectors,
d_(M.k (x,y))={|x_1-y_1 |^m+?+|x_n-y_n |^m }^(1/m)
d_(M.k (x,y))={?_(i=1)^n?|x_i-y_i |^m }^(1/m)

Where x^(1?m)=?(m&x) note that m=1 the distance reduces to Manhattan distance. Simple sum of the absolute differences. For m=2 the Minkowski distance use to reduces to Euclidean distance (Binder, 1978).

The different types of variables mixed together could be able to identify as the practical scenario. For that purpose any of the distance that identify in above can be reformed by applying a weighting scheme which reflects the variance. Generally it is necessary to standardize and normalize objects in order to compute (Anderberg, 1973). The distance matric has highly depended by the clustering. Through the changes of the distance matric may affect the number and membership of the clusters as well as the relationship between them theatrically.

5. REQUIREMENTS OF CLUSTERING IN DATA MINING
Interval – scaled, binary, nominal, ordinal and ratio or mixed type variables can be classified as the types of variables of cluster analysis. But mainly which cluster analysis is to be done selected by keeping the past research in mind, theoretical approach, hypothesis being tested and the judgement of the researcher.
Under the requirements of clustering in data mining at first should focus on the scalability. Many clustering algorithms work well on small data sets containing fewer than several number of data objects. Therefor the need highly scalable clustering algorithms to deal with large database (Blashfield & Aldenderfer, 1978).
Ability to deal with different types of attributes is another major requirement. Algorithms should be capable to be applied on any kind of data such as interval based data, categorical and binary.
Discovery of clusters with arbitrary shape is additional requirement. The clustering algorithm should be capable to detecting clusters of arbitrary shape.
High dimensionality is one of a key requirement. The clustering algorithm should not only be able to adjust with low-dimensional data but also with the high-dimensional space.
When concern the requirement of ability to deal with noisy data that explains through the data sensitivity (Charles, 2004). Database contain the noisy, missing or erroneous data. Some algorithms are sensitive to those kind of data and may lead to poor quality clusters.
The clustering results should be interpretable, comparable and usable. And also many algorithms have need of uses to provide base knowledge in the form of input parameters.
Not only that major requirements but also should focus the ability to handle dynamic data , insensitive to order of input records and combination of user specified constraints as requirements of clustering in data mining.

6. CLUSTER APPROACHES

There are different types of cluster approaches that can use to analysis in different types of fields. Partitioning algorithms is very popular as a cluster approach (Parsons et al, 2004).
To create a hierarchy decomposition of the set of data using some criterion is under the hierarchy algorithms. Based on connectivity and density function the density-based define as a one of a major approach. Based on a multiple-level structure define in grid-based approach. The model-based approach is a common model is hypothesized for each of the clusters and the idea is to find the best fit of that model to each other (Blashfield & Aldenderfer, 1978). Frequent-pattern based approach is based on the analysis of frequent patterns. As a final point the user constraint based approach is use to cluster by consider user specified or application.

7. CONCLUSIONS
The clustering is identify as is grouping similar data in similar groups. Greater than the similarity within the group and greater difference between the groups more distinct the clustering. For taxonomy description while data interpretation by hypothesis generation and finally identification of the relationship identify as the core objectives of the cluster analysis. That designed by after formulating a problem and then have to select the proper distance measure to find the appropriate clustering procedure. Subsequently deciding the number of clusters should interpret the profile to assess the validity of clustering.

Abstract:
For every country around the world which may be small or big, strong or weak it is necessary that it should be recognised as state by different state around the world. The status of statehood is important because it help’s particular country to enter into treaties with one another. In the world of globalization it necessary that a state must be accepted and treat as state. For particular country to be recognised as state at international sphere, the independence of state isn’t sole requirement. Declaring oneself as independent and joing the international organisation doesn’t make it state. It is necessary that the state claiming its right of recognition as state has to satisfy the condition laid down in Montevideo convention. This paper explores the quest of Kosovo’s march towards it independence and acquiring the recognition and status of statehood. The paper begins with Concept of recognition, types of recognition of state. However the main focus of the paper will be on Kosovo’s march towards acquiring status of statehood, ICJ view on Kosovo declaration of independence.
Background and Introduction:
Kosovo officially known as Republic of Kosovo is self declared country located in the southern part of Europe.It been contested region between Albania, Serbia for long time. Kosovo like other states has a long history of full of conflicts between two ethnic group Albanians and Serbians. The Kosovo till the battle of Kosovo in 1389 was under the control of the Serbian empire until they were defeated by Ottoman empire. Kosovo remained under the control of Ottomans until the 20th century when the Turks and the Albanians fought fiercely against the Serbian forces but lost control over the region in 1912 during a battle that would be known as the first Balkan War. During World War I, Kosovo once again found itself no longer under Serbian control, but occupied and under the control of the Central Powers until 1918 when the Allied forces successfully pushed the Central Powers out of Kosovo. At the end of World War I the Kingdom of Serbia, which included Kosovo, would ultimately become integrated into the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. End of World War II resulted in creation of Autonomous Province of Kosovo within the Yugoslav constituent Republic of Serbia. Tussle between Kosovo’s Albanian and Serb communities erupted into major violence, culminating in the Kosovo War of 1998 and 1999, which resulted in the withdrawal of the Yugoslav Army and the setting up of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo.
On 17 February 2008, Kosovo unilaterally declared its independence from Serbia. It has since gained diplomatic recognition as a sovereign state by UN member states. Serbia has time again refused to recognize Kosovo as a state, although with the Brussels Agreement of 2013, it has accepted the legitimacy of its institutions. The declaration of independence in 2008 was followed by an affirmative diplomatic campaign launched by the Government of Kosovo to secure individual recognitions by states in an effort to accede to the United Nations. Serbia refused to grant recognition to an act it deemed unilateral, and had in continuity refused any form of cooperation with Kosovo, including the addressing of open issues that directly affected the lives of the people, particularly those of the Serb minority living in Kosovo. Moreover, Serbia continues to obstruct Kosovo’s membership in regional initiatives still today, despite the fact that most of those initiatives aim at transforming and preparing the Western Balkans countries for European integration. This situation rightfully raises legal and political dilemmas related to the recognition of international subjectivity of an entity as well as how this can be achieved given the standing international relations and the existing balance of forces in the world.
Art 1 of Montevideo Convention on rights and duties of States laid down clear description as to elements of states. For any nation or country to acquire the status of statehood it has to consist following elements:
• Territory
• Permanent Population
• Effective government
• Capacity to enter into relationship with other states.
Therefore, Kosovo is bound to satisfy the above conditions

Permanent population:
The Montevideo convention does not lay down the criteria as to what amount of population is required to fulfil the condition of state. There is still confusion that exists at international arena because state with less than population of l lakh is given the status of state. One such example is Nauru with 10,000 population. As per Professor Raic, two points should be taken into concern when identifying permanent population:
• Population must have intention to inhabitant in territory on permanent basis
• Territory has to be claimed as habitable.
Kosovo’s population is around 1.8 million as per 2018 estimate, and people reside on definite territory and delimited in successive Yugoslav and Serbian constitutions as the autonomous region of Kosovo. An effective government is important criteria, and requires a system of government that can control its territory to the exclusion of other entities.
A strong and powerful government is the most important criterion such that it requires a system of government in general control of its territory, to the exclusion of other entities. This standard of ‘effective government’ varies with context, applying more stringently in the context of secession (where the former sovereign (Serbia) objects to the putative State’s (Kosovo’s) claim of statehood) than in the situation where a new State is granted full formal independence by a former sovereign (for example where Belgium resigned its right to exercise authority over the Democratic Republic of the Congo). However, in either scenario, ‘effective government’ requires only the establishment of basic institutions and law and order rather than a sophisticated apparatus of executive and legislative organs. This criterion again provides no object for Kosovo, which has a structured government created under the 2008 Constitution of the Republic of Kosovo.
Kosovo’s capacity to enter into relations with other States, the final criterion in the Montevideo Convention, is evidenced by its membership in the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.
Therefore, it would seem that Kosovo satisfies the classic criteria for statehood. However, this is not all that is required. To determine whether Kosovo definitively qualifies as a State, it is necessary to consider independence and recognition
Indpendence
Formal independence requires the powers of government of a territory to be vested in the separate authorities of the putative State. This is a legal rather than factual question, simply requiring the putative State to show a source authorising the exercise of governmental powers in the State. To illustrate with regard to Kosovo, this would require the powers of government over the geographical area of Kosovo to be vested in Kosovar authorities exclusively.
There are two main sources from which such powers may arise. First, they may stem from the State’s constitution. For example, in Australia, the Commonwealth Constitution creates, empowers, and limits the Parliament, Executive, and Judiciary. Secondly, they may emerge from a grant of full power from the State’s previous sovereign. An example of this is when Belgium resigned the right to exercise authority over the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Although this sounds rather peaceful, Belgium’s continued involvement in Congolese affairs led to a five year period of rebellion, war, and instability scarcely a week after Congolese independence. Granting independence is not automatically conducive to peaceful self-determination, then. Regardless, in our case, only the first source can be relevant since Serbia has not granted Kosovo full power.
However, although Kosovo does have a Constitution vesting governmental authority in its own institutions, a difficulty arises with the substantial powers provided to the United Nations (UN) by UN Security Council Resolution 1244. Indeed, it may be argued that so long as the UN is empowered to exercise governmental authority over Kosovo, Kosovo is debarred from achieving statehood. However, this was implicitly rejected by the International Court of Justice in its Kosovo Advisory Opinion, where it held that Resolution 1244 operated ‘on a different level’ to the declaration of independence. As such, the resolution did not reserve to the UN ‘the final determination of the situation in Kosovo,’ leaving open the possibility of a lawful declaration of independence and, potentially, statehood. Hence, Kosovo seems to satisfy the criterion of formal independence.
ICJ DECISON:
On 22 July 2010, the court ruled that the declaration of independence was not in violation of international law. The President of the ICJ Justice Hisashi Owada said that international law contains no “prohibition on declarations of independence.” The court also said while the declaration may not have been illegal, the issue of recognition was a political one. The question put to the Court concerned the legality of a declaration of independence made by the Provisional Institutions of Self-Government, institutions whose powers were limited to those conferred under the framework of a United Nations Security Council Resolution. None of the participants in the proceedings had argued that those institutions had not made the declaration. Nonetheless, the Court determined that the declaration of independence was not issued by the Assembly of Kosovo or otherwise by Provisional Institutions of Self-Government or any other official body. Once this crucial determination was made, the question the Court had to answer no longer concerned any action of the Provisional Institutions of Self-Government, as the Court had determined that those institutions had not made the declaration of independence.
In finding this, the Court referred to the fact that the declaration did not follow the legislative procedure; and was not properly published. The Court held that the words Assembly of Kosovo in the English and French variants were due to an incorrect translation and were not present in the original Albanian text, thus the authors, who named themselves “representatives of the people of Kosovo” were not bound by the Constitutional Framework created by the UNMIK which reserved the international affairs of Kosovo solely to the competency of the UN representative.The judgment also stated that the Court did not “feel that it is necessary” to address “whether or not Kosovo has achieved statehood” or “whether international law conferred a positive entitlement on Kosovo unilaterally to declare its independence.”

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Independence:
On the other hand, actual independence is a factual enquiry, and seeks to determine whether the putative State has the minimum degree of governmental control necessary to qualify as independent. In other words, even if a State has claimed formal independence, they must be able to demonstrate that they actually exercise governmental powers in the territory and are not merely puppets through which another State is acting.
Kosovo seems to satisfy actual independence, although this is more contentious than formal independence due to the substantial powers given to the UN to govern under Resolution 1244. Nevertheless, the UN has progressively transferred competences to the Kosovar authorities, intensifying after the declaration in February 2008, and Kosovo has held their own elections (outside the framework of Resolution 1244) since 2010. In 2012, Kosovar authorities gained control of its external affairs from the International Steering Group of States that had been established to oversee Kosovo’s independence. Further, in 2013, Kosovo and Serbia concluded the Brussels Agreement, attempting to normalise relations between the two countries. It provided for a single Kosovar police force, and a single Kosovar judiciary. Since then, more agreements in 2015 led to the establishment of an international dialling code for Kosovo. Yet the country does not have a top-level internet domain, which puts it one step below other disputed territories such as Western Sahara or even Antarctica. Nonetheless, these measures tend to demonstrate increasing levels of actual independence and control by Kosovar authorities over Kosovar territory and declining levels of control by UN and Serbian authorities, arguably to a point where Kosovo may be viewed as actually independent.If these arguments are accepted, the only criterion that remains to be satisfied in order to establish Kosovo as a State is recognition
Recogntiton:
Recognition is a statement or act by a State indicating the status in international law of another entity. The entity in question may be a State or a government. If it is a government, the recognition may be de facto or de jure. The former is a cautious and reversible assessment of a factual scenario as it stands, whereas the latter is more definitive and more explicitly legal. The United States’ recognition of Israel should demonstrate the point.
On 14 May 1948, President Harry Truman issued a press release stating ‘The United States recognizes the provisional government as the de facto authority of the new State of Israel.’ Not only did this provide recognition for the new State of Israel, it also provided de facto recognition for the provisional government. Next, on 31 January 1949, six days after the first elections were held for a permanent government, President Truman issued a press release stating ‘The United States Government is … pleased to extend de jure recognition to the Government of Israel as of this date.’ Thus, having become more definitive with the election of a permanent government, the United States was formally prepared to recognise the Israeli government in legal terms.
The effect of recognition, however, is the major sticking point. The chief question is whether recognition is a legal act, endowing the other State with international legitimacy, or a political act, merely facilitating relations between the two States in issue. This has important implications for statehood..If recognition is political, Kosovar recognition is irrelevant for the attainment of statehood and important only insofar as it establishes relations with other States. In legal jargon, the former is referred to as the constitutive theory whereas the latter the declaratory theory.
Entry into the constitutive-declarative debate would be a three-part blog in itself, so it is sufficient at this point to appreciate that neither (standing alone) can fully explain international recognition. For instance, the declaratory theory is superior in that it adopts a legal and objective way of analysing factual situations which is not contingent on the potentially arbitrary opinions of other States. The declaratory theory also has the practical benefit of being supported by a substantial body of judicial opinion (see the Tinoco Arbitration, Deutsch Continental Gas, and Aaland Islands cases). However, it fails to account for situations of illegality, where non-recognition may actually imply lack of status as a State. For example, when the apartheid government of Rhodesia made a Unilateral Declaration of Independence in 1965, a UN Security Council Resolution calling upon States not to recognise the ‘illegal racist minority regime’ and the subsequent universal non-recognition effectively deprived Rhodesia of the ability to act as a State. This was despite it substantially fulfilling the other criteria for statehood.
Conversely, the constitutive theory is premised on the positivist philosophy that if the obligation to obey international law derives from the consent of individual States, consent (through recognition) is required for a State to become subject to, and participate in, international law. However, if recognition is required, how many States need to recognise an entity before it becomes a State? How can an entity be both a State and not a State? Surely countries should not be able to circumnavigate their international legal obligations toward other entities by unilaterally choosing not to recognise them? These are just some of the problems associated with the constitutive theory.
For our purposes, much of this legal debate is irrelevant.Not only Kosovo has been recognised by 111 UN member States, it is also a member of the IMF and the World Bank. Such recognition is highly likely to be considered sufficient for statehood, even in the absence of recognition from Serbia.
Conclusion:
It is clear that apart from the traditional criterion in the 1993 MontevideoConvention on the Rights and Duties of States other criteria exist that an entity must fulfil in order to be regarded as a state. Kosovo even though fails to meet some of ceratin requirements for statehood under the traditional criteria and from the foregoing Kosovo may yet be regarded as a State properly under International Law.

Abstract:
For every country around the world which may be small or big, strong or weak it is necessary that it should be recognised as state by different state around the world. The status of statehood is important because it help’s particular country to enter into treaties with one another. In the world of globalization it necessary that a state must be accepted and treat as state. For particular country to be recognised as state at international sphere, the independence of state isn’t sole requirement. Declaring oneself as independent and joing the international organisation doesn’t make it state. It is necessary that the state claiming its right of recognition as state has to satisfy the condition laid down in Montevideo convention. This paper explores the quest of Kosovo’s march towards it independence and acquiring the recognition and status of statehood. The paper begins with Concept of recognition, types of recognition of state. However the main focus of the paper will be on Kosovo’s march towards acquiring status of statehood, ICJ view on Kosovo declaration of independence.
Background and Introduction:
Kosovo officially known as Republic of Kosovo is self declared country located in the southern part of Europe.It been contested region between Albania, Serbia for long time. Kosovo like other states has a long history of full of conflicts between two ethnic group Albanians and Serbians. The Kosovo till the battle of Kosovo in 1389 was under the control of the Serbian empire until they were defeated by Ottoman empire. Kosovo remained under the control of Ottomans until the 20th century when the Turks and the Albanians fought fiercely against the Serbian forces but lost control over the region in 1912 during a battle that would be known as the first Balkan War. During World War I, Kosovo once again found itself no longer under Serbian control, but occupied and under the control of the Central Powers until 1918 when the Allied forces successfully pushed the Central Powers out of Kosovo. At the end of World War I the Kingdom of Serbia, which included Kosovo, would ultimately become integrated into the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. End of World War II resulted in creation of Autonomous Province of Kosovo within the Yugoslav constituent Republic of Serbia. Tussle between Kosovo’s Albanian and Serb communities erupted into major violence, culminating in the Kosovo War of 1998 and 1999, which resulted in the withdrawal of the Yugoslav Army and the setting up of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo.
On 17 February 2008, Kosovo unilaterally declared its independence from Serbia. It has since gained diplomatic recognition as a sovereign state by UN member states. Serbia has time again refused to recognize Kosovo as a state, although with the Brussels Agreement of 2013, it has accepted the legitimacy of its institutions. The declaration of independence in 2008 was followed by an affirmative diplomatic campaign launched by the Government of Kosovo to secure individual recognitions by states in an effort to accede to the United Nations. Serbia refused to grant recognition to an act it deemed unilateral, and had in continuity refused any form of cooperation with Kosovo, including the addressing of open issues that directly affected the lives of the people, particularly those of the Serb minority living in Kosovo. Moreover, Serbia continues to obstruct Kosovo’s membership in regional initiatives still today, despite the fact that most of those initiatives aim at transforming and preparing the Western Balkans countries for European integration. This situation rightfully raises legal and political dilemmas related to the recognition of international subjectivity of an entity as well as how this can be achieved given the standing international relations and the existing balance of forces in the world.
Art 1 of Montevideo Convention on rights and duties of States laid down clear description as to elements of states. For any nation or country to acquire the status of statehood it has to consist following elements:
• Territory
• Permanent Population
• Effective government
• Capacity to enter into relationship with other states.
Therefore, Kosovo is bound to satisfy the above conditions

Permanent population:
The Montevideo convention does not lay down the criteria as to what amount of population is required to fulfil the condition of state. There is still confusion that exists at international arena because state with less than population of l lakh is given the status of state. One such example is Nauru with 10,000 population. As per Professor Raic, two points should be taken into concern when identifying permanent population:
• Population must have intention to inhabitant in territory on permanent basis
• Territory has to be claimed as habitable.
Kosovo’s population is around 1.8 million as per 2018 estimate, and people reside on definite territory and delimited in successive Yugoslav and Serbian constitutions as the autonomous region of Kosovo. An effective government is important criteria, and requires a system of government that can control its territory to the exclusion of other entities.
A strong and powerful government is the most important criterion such that it requires a system of government in general control of its territory, to the exclusion of other entities. This standard of ‘effective government’ varies with context, applying more stringently in the context of secession (where the former sovereign (Serbia) objects to the putative State’s (Kosovo’s) claim of statehood) than in the situation where a new State is granted full formal independence by a former sovereign (for example where Belgium resigned its right to exercise authority over the Democratic Republic of the Congo). However, in either scenario, ‘effective government’ requires only the establishment of basic institutions and law and order rather than a sophisticated apparatus of executive and legislative organs. This criterion again provides no object for Kosovo, which has a structured government created under the 2008 Constitution of the Republic of Kosovo.
Kosovo’s capacity to enter into relations with other States, the final criterion in the Montevideo Convention, is evidenced by its membership in the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.
Therefore, it would seem that Kosovo satisfies the classic criteria for statehood. However, this is not all that is required. To determine whether Kosovo definitively qualifies as a State, it is necessary to consider independence and recognition
Indpendence
Formal independence requires the powers of government of a territory to be vested in the separate authorities of the putative State. This is a legal rather than factual question, simply requiring the putative State to show a source authorising the exercise of governmental powers in the State. To illustrate with regard to Kosovo, this would require the powers of government over the geographical area of Kosovo to be vested in Kosovar authorities exclusively.
There are two main sources from which such powers may arise. First, they may stem from the State’s constitution. For example, in Australia, the Commonwealth Constitution creates, empowers, and limits the Parliament, Executive, and Judiciary. Secondly, they may emerge from a grant of full power from the State’s previous sovereign. An example of this is when Belgium resigned the right to exercise authority over the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Although this sounds rather peaceful, Belgium’s continued involvement in Congolese affairs led to a five year period of rebellion, war, and instability scarcely a week after Congolese independence. Granting independence is not automatically conducive to peaceful self-determination, then. Regardless, in our case, only the first source can be relevant since Serbia has not granted Kosovo full power.
However, although Kosovo does have a Constitution vesting governmental authority in its own institutions, a difficulty arises with the substantial powers provided to the United Nations (UN) by UN Security Council Resolution 1244. Indeed, it may be argued that so long as the UN is empowered to exercise governmental authority over Kosovo, Kosovo is debarred from achieving statehood. However, this was implicitly rejected by the International Court of Justice in its Kosovo Advisory Opinion, where it held that Resolution 1244 operated ‘on a different level’ to the declaration of independence. As such, the resolution did not reserve to the UN ‘the final determination of the situation in Kosovo,’ leaving open the possibility of a lawful declaration of independence and, potentially, statehood. Hence, Kosovo seems to satisfy the criterion of formal independence.
ICJ DECISON:
On 22 July 2010, the court ruled that the declaration of independence was not in violation of international law. The President of the ICJ Justice Hisashi Owada said that international law contains no “prohibition on declarations of independence.” The court also said while the declaration may not have been illegal, the issue of recognition was a political one. The question put to the Court concerned the legality of a declaration of independence made by the Provisional Institutions of Self-Government, institutions whose powers were limited to those conferred under the framework of a United Nations Security Council Resolution. None of the participants in the proceedings had argued that those institutions had not made the declaration. Nonetheless, the Court determined that the declaration of independence was not issued by the Assembly of Kosovo or otherwise by Provisional Institutions of Self-Government or any other official body. Once this crucial determination was made, the question the Court had to answer no longer concerned any action of the Provisional Institutions of Self-Government, as the Court had determined that those institutions had not made the declaration of independence.
In finding this, the Court referred to the fact that the declaration did not follow the legislative procedure; and was not properly published. The Court held that the words Assembly of Kosovo in the English and French variants were due to an incorrect translation and were not present in the original Albanian text, thus the authors, who named themselves “representatives of the people of Kosovo” were not bound by the Constitutional Framework created by the UNMIK which reserved the international affairs of Kosovo solely to the competency of the UN representative.The judgment also stated that the Court did not “feel that it is necessary” to address “whether or not Kosovo has achieved statehood” or “whether international law conferred a positive entitlement on Kosovo unilaterally to declare its independence.”

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Independence:
On the other hand, actual independence is a factual enquiry, and seeks to determine whether the putative State has the minimum degree of governmental control necessary to qualify as independent. In other words, even if a State has claimed formal independence, they must be able to demonstrate that they actually exercise governmental powers in the territory and are not merely puppets through which another State is acting.
Kosovo seems to satisfy actual independence, although this is more contentious than formal independence due to the substantial powers given to the UN to govern under Resolution 1244. Nevertheless, the UN has progressively transferred competences to the Kosovar authorities, intensifying after the declaration in February 2008, and Kosovo has held their own elections (outside the framework of Resolution 1244) since 2010. In 2012, Kosovar authorities gained control of its external affairs from the International Steering Group of States that had been established to oversee Kosovo’s independence. Further, in 2013, Kosovo and Serbia concluded the Brussels Agreement, attempting to normalise relations between the two countries. It provided for a single Kosovar police force, and a single Kosovar judiciary. Since then, more agreements in 2015 led to the establishment of an international dialling code for Kosovo. Yet the country does not have a top-level internet domain, which puts it one step below other disputed territories such as Western Sahara or even Antarctica. Nonetheless, these measures tend to demonstrate increasing levels of actual independence and control by Kosovar authorities over Kosovar territory and declining levels of control by UN and Serbian authorities, arguably to a point where Kosovo may be viewed as actually independent.If these arguments are accepted, the only criterion that remains to be satisfied in order to establish Kosovo as a State is recognition
Recogntiton:
Recognition is a statement or act by a State indicating the status in international law of another entity. The entity in question may be a State or a government. If it is a government, the recognition may be de facto or de jure. The former is a cautious and reversible assessment of a factual scenario as it stands, whereas the latter is more definitive and more explicitly legal. The United States’ recognition of Israel should demonstrate the point.
On 14 May 1948, President Harry Truman issued a press release stating ‘The United States recognizes the provisional government as the de facto authority of the new State of Israel.’ Not only did this provide recognition for the new State of Israel, it also provided de facto recognition for the provisional government. Next, on 31 January 1949, six days after the first elections were held for a permanent government, President Truman issued a press release stating ‘The United States Government is … pleased to extend de jure recognition to the Government of Israel as of this date.’ Thus, having become more definitive with the election of a permanent government, the United States was formally prepared to recognise the Israeli government in legal terms.
The effect of recognition, however, is the major sticking point. The chief question is whether recognition is a legal act, endowing the other State with international legitimacy, or a political act, merely facilitating relations between the two States in issue. This has important implications for statehood..If recognition is political, Kosovar recognition is irrelevant for the attainment of statehood and important only insofar as it establishes relations with other States. In legal jargon, the former is referred to as the constitutive theory whereas the latter the declaratory theory.
Entry into the constitutive-declarative debate would be a three-part blog in itself, so it is sufficient at this point to appreciate that neither (standing alone) can fully explain international recognition. For instance, the declaratory theory is superior in that it adopts a legal and objective way of analysing factual situations which is not contingent on the potentially arbitrary opinions of other States. The declaratory theory also has the practical benefit of being supported by a substantial body of judicial opinion (see the Tinoco Arbitration, Deutsch Continental Gas, and Aaland Islands cases). However, it fails to account for situations of illegality, where non-recognition may actually imply lack of status as a State. For example, when the apartheid government of Rhodesia made a Unilateral Declaration of Independence in 1965, a UN Security Council Resolution calling upon States not to recognise the ‘illegal racist minority regime’ and the subsequent universal non-recognition effectively deprived Rhodesia of the ability to act as a State. This was despite it substantially fulfilling the other criteria for statehood.
Conversely, the constitutive theory is premised on the positivist philosophy that if the obligation to obey international law derives from the consent of individual States, consent (through recognition) is required for a State to become subject to, and participate in, international law. However, if recognition is required, how many States need to recognise an entity before it becomes a State? How can an entity be both a State and not a State? Surely countries should not be able to circumnavigate their international legal obligations toward other entities by unilaterally choosing not to recognise them? These are just some of the problems associated with the constitutive theory.
For our purposes, much of this legal debate is irrelevant.Not only Kosovo has been recognised by 111 UN member States, it is also a member of the IMF and the World Bank. Such recognition is highly likely to be considered sufficient for statehood, even in the absence of recognition from Serbia.
Conclusion:
It is clear that apart from the traditional criterion in the 1993 MontevideoConvention on the Rights and Duties of States other criteria exist that an entity must fulfil in order to be regarded as a state. Kosovo even though fails to meet some of ceratin requirements for statehood under the traditional criteria and from the foregoing Kosovo may yet be regarded as a State properly under International Law.

ABSTRACT: Architecture was and still a vital need in our life; in very ancient times, it represented a human’s shelter from his surroundings. Architecture then along became the source of the human comfort along with the progress of the civilizations. To achieve that human comfort it was necessary for architecture to react harmoniously with its environment. Therefore, certain considerations like Social, constructional, environmental have been assigned to Architecture.

Modern architecture has neglected a natural inevitable consideration: “The Earth’s Energy” which is a natural electromagnetic field of the Earth, resulting from of the melted iron in the earth’s core. That energy have many types and formation, such as Lines, Grids, spots…etc. Modern researches proved that each type affecting Humans and the Environment differently.

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The human body also has many kinds of energy. Modern science defines the energy of the human body as an electromagnetic field that surrounds and penetrates it. Therefore, there is a continuous interaction between humans and the earth.

This research intended to focus on and demonstrate the Earth’s Energy types and formations, and measurements used tools. In addition, the research suggesting a methodology of Designing Urban Spaces according to the Earth’s Energy structure in the site, to provide better lives in Cities.
INTRODUCTION
Since the beginning of human existence on earth, Architecture was and still a vital need in man’s life; in ancient times, it was his shelter from surroundings. Architecture then along became the source of the human comfort along with the progress of the civilizations. To achieve that human comfort it was necessary for architecture to react harmoniously with its environment. Unfortunately, modern architecture regarded Social, constructional and environmental considerations, but neglected a natural inevitable consideration: “The Earth’s Energy”.

Earth is alive as well as humans, and its energies forms lines and grids emerged from beneath, through the geological faults, mineral veins, watercourses in the earth’s crust. In addition, the existence of these energy lines and grids appeared because of the melted earth’s iron core. The human body also has many kinds of energy. Modern science defines the energy of the human body as an electromagnetic field that surrounds and penetrates it. Therefore, there is a continuous interaction between humans and the earth. Ancient civilizations recognized the relation between life on earth and its bio-energy (Karim, 2010).
Since the Stone Age, a man used the big stones to mark the earth energy lines and their crossings, also the Greek built their buildings according to the earth energy zones and its power spots, the Romans did the same as they respected these energy lines and planned their cities and buildings according to it (Mettler, 1986). Blanche Merz showed in her book “Points of Cosmic Energy”, how the ancient man dealt with the natural earth energy grids, and how the ancient Egyptians dealt delicately with these grids, also she revealed the relation between the Romanesque and Gothic churches and the earth energy formations.

Dr. Ibrahim Karim declares in his book “Back To A Future For Mankind” that the city planning was passing through a process of two steps. The first step is to identifying a location on earth, which had a very strong sacred energy quality, and then the second step is to establish a connection between these earthly locations and the locations of similar ones in the sky.

Through the literature review, the research intended to focus on and demonstrate the Earth’s Energy types and formations, and measurements used tools. In addition, the research suggesting a methodology of Designing Urban Spaces according to the Earth’s Energy structure in the site, to provide better lives in Cities.

HUMAN BODY’S ENERGY
The concept of the humans having an energy system; is well established in eastern medicine long ago (Thurnell-Read, 1998). Chinese and Indians demonstrated the human’s energy system as energy pathways and energy gates, respectively.

The Body’s energy in Chinese civilization
The Chinese medicine illustrates the human energy system as a 14 major mirrored pathways called meridians, running over the skin through the whole body. As the body absorbs the subtle energy from the environment, the meridians distributes that energy through it. The condition of the human’s subtle energy system refers to the human’s health, “where any damage to it will ultimately result in damage to the physical body”. The meridians forming the link between the physical and etheric bodies. As the nature of these meridians is electromagnetic, so it could be affected by electromagnetic energies. Some modern devices can determine these energy flow pathways, “This suggests that meridians have a real physical presence” (Thurnell-Read, 1998).

These electromagnetic conductive points on the skin, are joined by energy paths along the body, and are acting like sensors or windows to deal with the environment around the human body. “In the Holy Quran it is said that when we die our skin will reveal everything about our actions in this life” (Karim, 2010).

The Body’s energy in Indian civilization
The Indian point of view classifies the body to a physical body and subtle bodies. The physical body have a low vibration so it is visible in the material world, but other bodies have higher vibrations so they are not visible. These bodies are etheric, emotional, mental and spiritual bodies. Hence the etheric body carries the cells information (Richard Gerber in Vibrational Medicine), the emotional body connected to the feelings of the body. The mental body is the source of thoughts and imagination, and the spiritual body connected to the divine. These subtle bodies connected to the physical body, and they interpenetrate each other. Unfortunately, the modern scientific tools are not yet suitable for analyzing and measuring these bodies (Thurnell-Read, 1998).

Old Indian scriptures demonstrates that the human body have seven major chakras. These chakras acting like energetic gates between the body and the external world. Each chakra linked to an internal organ and a particular gland.

EARTH ENERGY
This research is concerned with the Earth Energy, which means the natural electromagnetic fields of the earth, also it considered as an electromagnetic cover located between the earth’s surface and the atmosphere. It thought to be generated by fluid motions of the melted iron in the earth’s core (SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, 2018). As its electrical and magnetic properties occurred in the Earth’s poles (Figure 1).

Fig. 1 The earth’s magnetic field
Reference: United States Geological Survey 2008
TYPES OF NATURAL ELECTROGAGNETIC ENERGY
This energy occurred in many forms like Lines, grids, spots or any other form. While some of these energy forms are beneficial for humankind, the rest are harmful. These energy forms could occur in the same place, so it might magnify or eliminate each other.

Energy lines or pathways
This type of earth energy originated from the underground water streams and the geological Faults, so it could be straight or curved as it is related to their paths. It could occur as a single line in the site or a multiple intersecting lines or pathways.

The underground water streams radiations
These radiations rises vertically, resulting from the underground water streams beneath the Earth’s surface (Figure 2). Theses radiations forms a continuous line of vortices, where some of it is harmful for the humankind and some is beneficial, depending on the rotation direction (Hall, 1997). Their effect could occur in the higher floors in the buildings (Thurnell-Read, 1998).

Fig. 2 The underground water streams radiations
Reference: Author edits after Cowan & Girdlestone 1996
Geological Faults
It is considered as one of the main causes of Earth’s electromagnetic anomalies and Geopathic stress (Freshwater, 1997), as it is resulting from the compressional or tensional forces cause relative displacement of the rocks of the Earth’s crust (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2008), as shown in (Figure 3). This pressure forces affects the electrical field of the metals in this area, specially quartz and iron, where it releases speed harmful neutrons turns into negative electrons and positively charged protons.

Fig. 3 Geological fault in Morocco
Reference: Bouttemy 2013
Energy grids
This type of earth energy related to the earth’s magnetic field, it occurs as grids or networks. The lines of these grids could be perpendicular or mirrored as follows.

Hartmann Grid
First described by the German physician Dr. Ernst Hartmann (Thurnell-Read, 1998), in the sixties of the twentieth century. This grid lines occurs as an invisible vertical radioactive walls (Figure 4).

Fig. 4 Three-dimensional imaginary representation of the Hartmann Grid
Reference: Author after Thurnell-Read 1998
The lines width is 25 cm in the east west direction and 2 meters apart, and the width of the north-south direction lines is 15 cm and the spacing between them ranged from 1.2 to 2.5 meters depending on whether it is near or far from the Earth’s poles. Every around 2 meters in height there is a horizontal plane, with 20 cm thick forming a stacked cubes (Karim, 2010). One of the lines of this network has positive electrical charge and the next is negative, and that repeated constantly (Thurnell-Read, 1998) (Figure 5). A node occurred when two lines of this grid with same charge intersects, where the charges are doubled (Figure 5). This energy grid rise to considerable heights in the atmosphere (Mettler, 1986).

Fig. 5 The grid lines charges in the two directions
Reference: Author after Thurnell-Read 1998
Benker Grid
Named after an Austrian researcher called Anton Benker, this grid also called “Benker Cubical System”, where it looks like cubes stacked beside and over each other (Dale, 2009). This grid Superimposed on the Hartmann Grid, with single or double strips (zones), with an approximate dimensions of 10x10x10 m. (Karim, 2010). This grid is most important, where it is related to the arrangements and the dimensions of ancient temples and churches (Mettler, 1986).

Curry Grid
The lines of this grid are electrically charged, naturally originated. It runs diagonally (Northeast – Southwest) and (Southeast – Northwest) (Thurnell-Read, 1998). This grid, described by Wittman and Curry in the 1970’s (Stark, 2005). In older publications represent the grid lines as diagonals inside the Hartmann grid squares; in fact, it is an exceptional case (Figure 6).

Fig. 6 The relation between Curry and Hartmann grids
Reference: Author edits after Hall 1997
These grid radiations can penetrate the building materials, and occurs at the higher floors of skyscrapers (Jurgec, 2008). There is disagreement between the references about the distances between these grid lines, but the consensus that this distance within 3 meters, and yet most experts realize that it can change (Thurnell-Read, 1998). These grid lines does not make a threat to the human health, but only at its intersection. While intersections of these lines are considered more harmful than the equivalent Hartmann knots (Stark, 2005).

Schneider Grid
Schneider described a positive grid in the 1980’s, which oriented 45° east of north, and the spacing between its lines is 294 meters, while Dr. Gunther Schneck described a mirrored negative grid (Figure 7), oriented 45° west of north (Stark, 2005).

Fig. 7 Schneider Grid
Reference: Author after Stark 2005
Second Schneider Grid
Schneider also described a positive grid oriented 28° east of north, and the spacing between its lines is 267 meters (Figure 8), which are associated with strength and physical healing. The Romans oriented their roads according to this grid, and many archaeological features are located over its crossings. Dr. Schneck described also a mirrored negative grid (Stark, 2005).

Fig. 8 Second Schneider Grid
Reference: Author after Stark 2005
Schneck’s Cemetery Grid
This grid is oriented 40° east of north, and the spacing between its lines is 170 meters (Figure 9). This grid related to funerary procession paths and funeral doors in churches, their crossings found at entrances of cemeteries and catacombs. There is also a mirrored negative grid (Rocka ; Creightmore, 2018).

Fig. 9 Schneck’s Cemetery Grid
Reference: Author after Rocka & Creightmore 2018
Curry Double Grid
This grid is oriented 20° east of north. The grid lines are perpendicular to each other with dimensions 125×200 meter (Figure 10). This grid strongly polarized, therefore ancients marked its positive crossings by Dolmens, Menhirs and Stone Circles, as well as the Roman Forts, Temple Sites, small chapels and churches (Schneck, 1995).

Fig. 10 Curry Double Gird
Reference: Author after Schneck 1995
Curry Grid Zones
These zones superimposed on the Curry Grid, but it is not steady. Factors such as weather, air ionization, terrestrial radiation and tidal forces play a role. Each zone width is about 1 meter wide depending on the intensity of the intersecting zones. Cathedrals and churches, which are located beside water bodies, are often aligned with these zones (Mettler, 1986).

Broad Curry Grid
Dr. G. Schneck Also discovered another grid through his dowsing in the roman amphitheater in Wales. This perpendicular grid is positively polarized. It is oriented 30° east of north. The thickness of its lines is 2.30 m., and the spacing between them is 106 meters (Schneck, 1995).

Alex Grid
In 2008, the author and Dr. Mohamed Samir El-Sawy held a field study on two archeological sites in Alexandria, dating to the roman era.

We conducted a new earth energy grid, which not mentioned before. The buildings on these sites accurately aligned to this perpendicular grid, as it was their designing grid.

That grid oriented about 23°30′ west of north, and the spacing between its zones about (25.5 x 40) meters. We named it “Alex Grid”.

Power Spots and Energy Spirals
These central spots were located at the intersection of several earth energy straight paths known as “Ley Lines”. At certain spots where Ley centers were superimposed on underground stream crossing they create a powerful energy vortex in the form of an ascending spiral with a clockwise rotation. This type of configuration is typically found in beneficial power spots, and usually has a spring well with a healing water quality (Karim, 2010).

Energy spirals usually occur in pairs. They can be spiraling downward or upward, Clockwise or anti clockwise. They may have the same shape, but different energy flows with different effects. (Thurnell-Read, 1998)
THE EFFECT OF EARTH ENERGY ON THE HUMAN BODY
Geopathic stress has a great impact on humans, as the effect of Extremely low frequency electric fields on human’s brain is experimentally confirmed (Krinker et al., 2010). Many practitioners and researchers agree that geopathic stress zones affecting humans, animals, plants and even the built environment like buildings, streets and pavements (Dharmadhikari et al., 2010). Some effects of the earth energy on humans mentioned below.

Physical Effects
A study held using a (GDV) device, on group of people staying over a geopathic stress zone. Their corona projections revealed increase and deficiencies of the body’s energy, which are mostly associated with the lymphatic system, the cardiovascular system and the pineal gland (Hacker et al., 2005).

Geopathic stress may lower the ability of immune system (Dharmadhikari et al., 2010). Through a field study held in India, by using traditional techniques and modern devices, it is proved that the presence of geopathic stress zone increase blood pressure and heart rate (Sorate et al., 2015).

Another study held on five different locations of geopathic stress zones, the study concluded that it was a highly significant changes in body voltage and skin conductivity over these zones (Dharmadhikari et al., 2011).

A research held in Philippines on people who stayed (seating or sleeping) for a period of time within geopathic stress zone. That study revealed that the people suffers many symptoms, like fatigue in the morning, migraine, rheumatism, asthma and even cardiovascular circulation problem (Convocar, 2012).
Psychological Effects
Geopathic stress affecting the reaction time of drivers, which causes accidents (Sorate et al., 2015).

By exposing humans to geopathic stress zone for 20 minutes, it led them to feel exhausted, depressed and nervous (Dharmadhikari et al., 2010).

A study held on 26 people stayed on a geopathic stress zone, the results showed a significant main effect in uncomfortable, worse and tired on such zone (Augner et al., 2010).

The same research mentioned before, which held in Philippines revealed that the people suffers many psychological symptoms. These symptoms was restless sleep, nervousness and even demonic attacked (Convocar, 2012).

A significant relationship was found between geopathic stress and burnout and work-related stress. Hence, geopathic stress affecting human’s work performance (Convocar, 2014).
EARTH ENERGY DETECTION
There are many ways to detect the earth energy, which are depending on the human body, that could be done through kinesiology (muscle testing), dowsing (using rods or pendulums), sensing (psychic responses), and observing animal behavior (Freshwater, 1997).

Modern devices can detect earth energy, as we can use site measuring devices and Human Body measuring devices.

Traditional Techniques
Dowsing, is one of the most famous ancient techniques. The art of dowsing was given the name Radiesthesia by French priest Alex Bouly (Encyclopedia, 2016). Radiesthesia is a word of Latin origin meaning sensitivity to radiation. It is the science of using the vibrational fields of the human body to access information about other objects of animate or inanimate nature by establishing resonance with their energy fields, using specially calibrated instruments (PHYSICAL RADIESTHESIA, 2014).

Radiesthesia followed two tendencies, the one that proceeds to the mental, and the other which aims to rest on principles of physics, these two have a common point where they going: the transformation and amplification of radiation flowing through the body of man, which translates by the movement of a detector (Pendulum or rod) (Chaumery et al., 2003).

The science of BioGeometry has developed Pendulums, specially designed to measure both the magnetic (horizontal) waves, and the electric (vertical) waves of the earth energy grids, such as Hartmann and Curry grids (Figure 11).

Fig. 11 Some of the measurements pendulums
Reference: Author edits after Karim 2010
Modern measuring devices
Through the traditional techniques have been successful based on their statistical success ratios, and also simple, fast and inexpensive; there is a continued skepticism about their acceptance by the scientific community (Dharmadhikari et al., 2010).

Modern digital measuring devices based on the quantitative measurement of electromagnetic energy, unlike the above measurement methods, which measure energy qualitatively, and these devices divided into two types as follows.

Human body measuring devices
The “Bio-Well” device is the computer analysis of electro-photonic emissions, resulting from placing the human fingertips in the high-intensity electromagnetic field for less than a millisecond. The response to this stimulus is the formation of a variation of an “electron cloud” composed of light energy photons (Gdvcamera, 2013).

The “ETAScan” device is a bioenergetic analyzer. It captures the human organism as an energetic entity, it “sees” the item as a “frequency swarm” that has a specific structure (Therapie Nach Maß, 2016).

However, modern devices often rely on traditional methods of initial sensing of energy places before they quantified.

Site measuring devices
It can measure energy vibrations, electrical or magnetic energy charges, radio waves, and even the radioactivity of the site.

Dharmadhikari (2011) suggested the use of L-rod dowsing technique and geo-resistivity meter to detect the presence of earth energy anomalies, but this device is suitable when the area to be surveyed is large (Sorate et al., 2015).

Dharmadhikari and others (2010) also made a study by using of Light Interference Technique, to under-stand the nature of a pre-detected Geopathic stress zones. This instrument depends on using a laser light source and detector, with a gap in between. In case of earth energy anomalies is present in the gap, the inter-action between the laser light photons and earth energy anomalies changes the current (Dharmadhikari et al., 2010).

The Full-Point company developed instruments to detect Hartmann and Curry grids. These instruments operation depends on detecting the changes of the frequency modulated signals (FM), where it is consisting of two instruments: a transmitter called a “sounder” and a receiver called a “sonar” (Jurgec, 2008).

Both Dr. Mark Krinker and Professor Aron Goykadosh made a study, by using Spinning Electric Vector Analyzer (SEVA), and an extremely low frequency unit (ELF), for mapping and detecting irregular geopathic zones (Krinker et al., 2010). Where the Spinning Electric Fields considered as one of geopathic stress zones related phenomena (Krinker et al., 2006). It has revealed and established experimentally, that these phenomena can affect humans (Krinker et al., 2010).

THE PROPOSED METHODOLOGY REGARDING EARTH ENERGY IN URBAN DESIGN
To provide better lives in cities, we can;
Mapping the underground water streams and geological faults.

Defining both negative and positive grids and power spots.

Choosing appropriate or neutral areas for housing and work places, by avoiding the negative pathways and spots.

Planting the negative zones with appropriate plants.

Choosing positive areas for the hospitals, healing centers and public parks.

Linking positive energy spots with pedestrian or car paths, to spread the positive energy through the whole site.

Designing the pedestrian network according to the positive energy grid on the site, to gain its beneficial energy quality.

CONCLUSIONS
Modern science defines the human body’s energy as an electromagnetic field, which surrounds and penetrates it. Therefore, there is a continuous interaction between humans and the earth.

Many practitioners and researchers agree that geopathic stress zones affecting humans, animals, plants and even the built environment.

The ancient man traced and marked the earth energy formations, moreover the ancient civilizations used the earth energy grids to plan and design their cities and buildings.

The measurements in Alexandria, which conducted by author and Dr. Mohamed El-Sawy, proved that the archeological buildings accurately aligned to an earth energy grid, we named it “Alex. Grid”.

Modern devices can detect earth energy, as we can use site measuring devices and Human Body measuring devices.

The author proposed a methodology, which regarding earth energy when designing urban spaces.

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