Abstract: and girls who are subjected to violence

Abstract: Gender based violence streamed from theinequality between men and women, which have led to certain oppression andviolence against women is on the rise in all parts of the world. “Women areforced into a subordinate position compared with men” (DEVAW). Women and girlswho are subjected to violence are mostly depressing, hopeless and feelworthless all the time, and that they think they do not have control over theirown lives and bodies. This has direct consequences with respect to theirhealth, employment and participation in social and political life (Kelly2005).

Violence against women can take an ugly turn when women suffer in thefour walls of their home, Domestic violence has become an incurable diseasewhich has spread to every corner of the world, the virus has become thepowerful silent killer which has claim millions of women’s lives all across theglobe.  No society, religion, class andcaste can claim to be free from the diseases of domestic violence. It causesWomen to live in fear, trauma, and pain, and rob away their basic human rightto live with liberty and dignity. The victims suffer silently and are powerlessto fight back, This powerlessness is mainly due to the phenomenon of “dominant-submissive”axis in interpersonal relationship, where the victims are wholly dependent uponthe mercy of her husband and in laws, whereby the oppressor becomes moredominant, displaying his controlling power over the weaker section of hisfamily, his wife and his children. In India, till date, women are still treatedas second class citizens and their basic rights are being violated every day,though  a lot of steps and measures hasbeen taken by the Indian government to improve the condition of women in thecountry, women still suffer a lot, this is primarily because  their oppressor is someone  close to them. In NE states of India wheremajority of the population are habited by tribal communities, women enjoy morefreedom and privilege as compared to the women in other parts of the country.

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But despite this, crime against women ison the rise and one out of four women in NE India experiences domestic violencein their lifetime. Keywords : Women,status, domestic violence.Introduction :Violence against women isextremely common and it is one of the most widespread violation of human rights(Kaur 2001) and it happens everywhere, in the workplace, in the street and evenat home, for which is regarded as the most safest place. In 2002, the Councilof Europe adopted a definition of violence against women and in particulardomestic violence, similar to that used in the United Nations AssemblyDeclaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women3 in 1993. Violenceagainst Women is defined as follows:- ….”any act of gender-basedviolence, which results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual orpsychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts,coercion, or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public orprivate life.

This includes,… violence occurring in the family or domesticunit, …physical and mental aggression, emotional and psychological abuse, rapeand sexual abuse, incest, rape between spouses, regular or occasional partnersand cohabitants, crimes committed in the name of honor, female genital andsexual mutilation and other traditional practices harmful to women, such asforced marriages”. Intimate partner violence against women causessignificant and adverse mental and physical health effects (Campbell, 2002 Walton-Moss,Manganello, Frye, & Campbell, 2005) and is a major public health and socialproblem (Epstein, 1999). Reducing the occurrence of intimate partner violenceagainst women is a priority for the two major systems of formal social controland assistance in the United States, the criminal legal and health caresystems. However, the majority of women who experience intimate partnerviolence do not report it to the police (Bachman and Coker, 1995).The unequal treatment of men andwomen is the root cause of various problems in the society. Domestic violencebeing one of the most prevalent. Constitutionally men and women are equal yetthe grim reality is that women are still treated as inferior to men.

In varioussociety women have no right to  property,no right over the  children and cannottake part in any decision making, inside the family or in the society. Though with many reforms and lawsprotecting the weaker section women are still deprived of many things, inrecent times. there are massive changes in the participation of women inbanking, hospitality, educational institutions, and other sectors, but this isjust a of very less percentage.Women In most  cases  are subjected to cruelty and ill treatment inthe hand of someone close to them, like their husbands and her  in laws. The case of such cruelty  against women is higher among the poor andilliterate, living in rural villages as humbly they accept their fate as partof the tradition and custom they live in.

The problem of domestic violenceremain undetected and under reported as women should preserve the dignity ofher family by silently bearing the pain, and are force into subordination,punishment and sense of powerlessness.Domestic violence:The term “domestic” refers to thefamily home where such violence is perpetrated against women. Violence againstwomen at home is especially dangerous because while the home is said to be thesafest place for men, the home can be the least safe place for women (Edwards,1989). Violence against women in their home is a unique phenomenon in the worldof violence and only in a prison or similar institution would an individual belikely to encounter such persistent abuse or violence (Dobash & Dobash,1992).Women and children are often ingreat danger in the place where they should be safest: within their families.For many, ‘home’ is where they face a regime of terror and violence at thehands of somebody close to them – somebody they should be able to trust. Thosevictimized suffer physically and psychologically.

They are unable to make theirown decisions, voice their own opinions or protect themselves and theirchildren for fear of further repercussions. Their human rights are denied andtheir lives are stolen from them by the ever-present threat of violence. Themain similarity that can be found between domestic violence and terrorismregards the psychological mechanisms triggered by these human rights violations,both using intimidation in order to make the victim act in a certain way.Therefore, after making the victim acknowledge that a pattern of violence wouldfollow if she does not behave in the way preferred by the perpetrator, theviolence is not needed anymore, only in order to maintain the victim’s state ofmind. This makes the subject of the abuse live in a state of continuous fear ofthe aggressor, which usually leads to even more pathological consequences thanthe physical abuse itself. The female  victims of Domestic violence sometimes altertheir behavior so much (refraining from wearing certain clothes, developingcertain activities – such as leaving their jobs, having a social life, etc)that in the end they finish by self – depriving themselves almost completely oftheir personal liberty through this fear-modeled comportment. Because of thesame psychological mechanism, the abused children risk of ending up withoutbeing able to assert their own will in front of others or develop a normalindependent personality. Physical injury, mental health problems, and complicationsof pregnancy are some of the health consequences that result from violenceinflicted on women by their male partners or former partners.

Violence against women and girlsis a problem of pandemic proportions. Worldwide, an estimated one in five womenwill be a victim of rape or attempted rape in her lifetime. One in three willhave been beaten, coerced into sex or otherwise abused, usually by a familymember or an acquaintance. The perpetrators – more often than not – gounpunished. Each year, violence kills and disables as many women between theages of 15 and 44 as cancer does. And its toll on women’s health surpasses thatof traffic accidents and malaria combined ( UNFPA 2005).Types of domestic violence: Domestic violence includesphysical abuse like kicking, slapping ,hair pulling against another person orthe use of force which cause serious injury, even death.

Verbal abuse like namecalling, insulting, yelling, mocking, constant harassment making the  victims to feel worthless, excessivepossessiveness and threatening.  Sexualabuse which can be marital rape, any acts of forcing to participate inunwanted, unsafe or degrading sex and forcing to watch pornography. Economic orfinancial abuse includes withholding physical resources such as money, clothes,food or shelter.

Preventing the partner for having any occupations andexploiting the partner financially. Domestic violence includes the controlling behavior and stalking  against the victim, which in many cases mencontrolling and stalking their partnersStatus of women in North East: The northeastern states ofIndia comprises of the state of Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur ,Meghalaya,Mizoram , Nagaland , Sikkim and Tripura. The region is rich in cultures, customand traditions, majority of population residing in the region are tribalcommunities, which speaks different languages and have different customary lawsand beliefs. The status of women in NE is comparatively better than women ofmain stream or other communities in the country; they enjoy greater mobilityand visibility in the society. The absence of Sati, female infanticide, brideburning, purdah, etc indicate the high status of women in the region. To saythat they are different from their counterpart elsewhere is true, but that doesnot mean that they are better, measuring their situation with the yardstick ofgender equality women of northeast are still lagging behind.

Since women andgirls are still, suffering from ill- health, poverty , school dropout  and domestic violence, they have no decisionmaking power and their rights are violate every day. Data source and methodology:  The paper is based mainly onsecondary data sources, studies being conducted by eminent persons; it was alsobased on the information collected through various journals, articles andreports from the government and various organizations Review of related literature:Leela Visaria (1999) Some of theworse forms of violence has been reported by Visaria in her study (1999), forinstance, beating with sticks or iron rod, knives, utensils, blades and ladles,throwing women against objects or bashing their heads against the walls. Some ofthe women who had become victim of this form of violence indicated that injury,and they would be too ashamed to talk about it to others. A couple of womenalso hinted that men know that their wives cannot report such punishment evento their own parents or seek medical treatment due to a sense of shame. Some ofthe reasons given by women, in the survey done by Visaria is, meals not servedproperly, economic constraints, financial matters, men wasting money at teastalls, drinking of alcohol, men feeling that women are paying less attentionto the children and vis-à-vis, men feel women have a lot of free time and soon.UNICEF (2000) “Violence againstwomen and girls continues to be a global epidemic that kills, tortures,andmaims – physically, psychologically, sexually and economically. It is one ofthe most pervasive of human rights violations, denying women and girlsequality, security, dignity, self-worth, and their right to enjoy fundamentalfreedoms.

” While reliable statistics are hard to come by, studies estimatethat, from country to country, between 20 and 50 per cent of women haveexperienced physical violence at the hands of an intimate partner or familymember.UNO(2013) The global statisticsshow: between 13% and 61% of women 15–49 years old report that an intimatepartner has physically abused them at least once in their lifetime between 6%and 59% of women report forced sexual intercourse, or an attempt at it, by anintimate partner in their lifetime from 1% to 28% of women report they were physicallyabused during pregnancy, by an intimate partnerMs. R. Kalaiyarasi (2015)Inrecent years there has been an alarming increase in atrocities and violenceagainst women in the country. It is estimated that the growth rate of crimeagainst women would be higher than the population growth rate by 2010, behindclosed doors of homes all across our country, women are being tortured, beatenand killed.

It is happening in rural areas, towns, cities and in metropolitansas well.Domestic violence in NE:Various studies conducted bydifferent institutions shows that North east India is also suffering from thissocial evil of Domestic violence. A study conducted in Imphal revealed that53.

6% of  women faced violence in theirmarried life,82% of the crime were committed by husbands and 27% by in-laws.The study shows that 78% is emotional or verbal violence followed by 48% ofphysical violence. Women in Nagaland, Mizoram andSikkim were also reported to suffer domestic violence. There are only fewnumbers of the cases reported and the rest are lying undetected.

The GenderStatistics Nagaland 2016 reported that crime against women in the state isincreasing which included molestation, rape, abuse and domestic violence. Datacollected by the National Family Health Survey in Mizoram shows an average 22percent of wives in Mizoram suffered at the hand s of their husbands, while thenational average was 37 percent. Lalthansangi, Counselor of the Centre forPeace and Development says a high percentage of domestic violence perpetratedby husbands against wives are physical violence, and all categories of domesticviolence are inter-related, and the victims are from different section ofsociety including the poor, middle class and government employees, she furtheradded that many women do not report cases of physical violence by theirhusbands for not being aware of the law against domestic violence.

In Meghalaya where lineage istrace from the female line and women are earning respect equally to their male counterpart  in the society, still a large number ofwomen  are subjected to various issues ofcruel treatment. The Youth voices of human rights organization has conducted asurvey and reported that almost 50 percent of the women in the capital itselfare victims of domestic violence.In Tripura the case of domesticviolence is another crime against women which top the list, The TripuraCommission for Women report clarify that largest share of the case registeredis cruelty by husbands and in-laws.

“The rate shows that women are muchinsecure in their home amidst their relative than outside” words from chairpersonof the women Commission in Tripura.State wise crueltyby husbands and relatives during 2015-16 among the Northeastern States.     Sl.No     States Crime against women Cruelty by husbands and relatives 2015 2016 2015 2016 1 Assam 23365 20869 11225 9321 2 Arunachal Pradesh 384 367 66 51 3 Mizoram 158 120 09 19 4 Meghalaya 337 372 44 26 5 Manipur 266 253 39 31 6 Nagaland 91 105 04 03 7 Sikkim  53 153 02 02 8 Tripura 1267 1013 501 430  A   study which a was conducted among the Tanitribe and Nyishi women   in ArunachalPradesh shows that domestic violence is much prevalent among the tribes,analysis from  various case studies showsthe main cause  of domestic violenceamong other factors that contribute to the problem is the extra marital affairsof the husbands and socio economics background which often resulted in thephysical, emotional and economic abuse among the women. Various  case studies  which has beenconducted in the some parts of   Assamwitnessed the problem which faced by women in this area, most of the women inthis area bears the mental and physical torture at the hands of the husbandsand in-laws because of insecurity and having nowhere to go, lack of financialsupport and certain form of economic abuse add to the problem of domesticviolence. Young women are vulnerable to physical abuse whereas upper age groupwomen are likely to be abused emotionally.

 Conclusion:Women contribute a lot for the betterment of the society andnation; they should not be treated as inferior to men. Women have the same abilityand qualities as men possesses. They can contribute enormously in the field ofeducation and health care because mothers are always the best tutor andcaretaker.

Giving them the chance to participate beyond their circles willenhance the benefit for the society and the country. Prior check on crimeagainst women should become the main issue of every community in the country.Domestic violence not only paralyses the regular living of the victim but hasan adverse effect on the children as well. The country cannot move forward ifhalf of its population is under coercion.Bibliography:        i.           Violence against women – An emerging healthissue in NEIndia(Sept-Oct.

2016),ISSN(0):2395-2882;ISSN(P):2395-2114.Rajkumar.B,Rakumari.BS,KeishemA.      ii.           Socio-economic status of women in NortheastIndia: Causes and consequences of Domestic violence against women in Assam:Case analysis.

Shiv Shakti International Journal in Multidisciplinary andAcademic Research Vol.3,No.2, (March-April 2014) (ISSN 2278-5973)     iii.           UNICEF INNOCENTI DIGEST No.6 – June 2000Domestic Violence against Women And Girls    iv.

           WHO (2013). Responding to intimate partnerviolence and sexual violence against women.      v.           IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science(IOSR-JHSS) Volume 20, Issue 2, Ver. III (Feb. 2015), PP 51-55 e-ISSN:2279-0837, p-ISSN: 2279-0845. www.

iosrjournals.org DOI: 10.9790/0837-20235155www.iosrjournals.org 51 | Page Violence against Women in India Ms. R.Kalaiyarasi.    vi.

           Violence Against Women in India: Evidence fromRural Gujarat” by  Leela Visaria.Gujarat Institute of Development Studies. P. 14-25. In Domestic Violence inIndia: A Summary Report of Three Studies. International Center for Research onWomen: Washington, DC, September, 1999.   vii.           Violence against women – a gross violation ofhuman rights that hinders development Imprint: November 2009 Published by:Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbHDag-Hammarskjöld-Weg 1-5 65760 Eschborn/Germany  viii.

           Khazar Journal of Humanities and Social SciencesVolume 18, Number 3, 2015, Domestic Violence against Women in Bangladesh: AReview of the Literature and the Gaps to fill-in by Future Interventions AnisurRahman Khan National Institute of Development Administration, Thailand.    ix.           Domestic Violence in India : Ms. SudhaChaudhary, Vol.1,No.2,146-152,April-June,2013(ISSN No,2321-4155)      x.           National Crime Record Bureau, Crime inIndia:  2015 Statistics, New Delhi    xi.

           National Crime Record Bureau, Crime inIndia:  2016 Statistics, New Delhi   xii.            http://www.scribd.com/document/53119868/violence           xiii.            https://www.importantindia.com         xiv.

                        www.morungexpress.com/crime-women-nagaland-report/  xv.

            www.zeenews.india.com/violence -women-mizoram/  xvi.            https://thenortheasttoday.com/crime-women/xvii.

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