Abstract- At present wastemanagement is a major concern in the metropolitan cities of the developing anddeveloped countries. As the population is growing, the garbage is alsoincreasing day by day.
Garbage management isbecoming a global problem. Due to the lack of attention took by the authoritiesthe garbage bins are mostly seem to be overflowing. It has to be taken intocare by corresponding authorities and should think what method can be followedto overcome this. Thishuge unmanaged accumulation of garbage is polluting the environment, spoilingthe area and also leading to the health hazard. To overcome this situation anefficient smart municipal waste management system has to be developed. In thisera of Internet, Internet of Things (IOT) can be used effectively to managethis waste as many effective methods can be found out easily. This is thesurvey paper which involves the various ideas to solve this problem using somealgorithms that can be easily implemented. Key Words: Internet of things (IOT), SmartGarbage collection.
1. INTRODUCTION Now-a- dayssmart cities represents hot topic in terms of improving living conditions. As one of the application of Smart City, Waste Managementin a city is a big challenge faced by the public administrations. IoT is asystem of sensors where information is traded, utilizing distinctiveconventions, inside frameworks. Squander is characterized as any material inwhich to some degree profitable isn’t being utilized or isn’t usable and speaksto no financial incentive to its proprietor, the waste generator. Depending onthe state of the waste, they are categorized into dry waste and wet waste.
Wastemanagement includes planning, collection, transport, recycle and disposal ofwaste together with monitoring and regulation. The existing waste managementsystem, where the garbage is collected from the streets, houses and otherestablishments on quotidian basis, is not able to effectively manage the wastegenerated. Our workfocuses on the optimization algorithms for Smart City management and morespecifically this paper deals with municipal waste collection procedure. Nowadays,the garbage-truck needs to pick-up all garbage cans even if they are empty.
Toavoid such challenges faced we are proposing a system where efficient routesare defined shortest route to collect the garbage filled bins. 2. RECENT RESEARCH IN MUNICIPAL WASTE COLLECTIONOPTIMIZATIONThe steady development ofpopulace urban regions brings expanding city strong waste age with financialand ecological effect. City strong waste administration – source division, storage,gathering, exchange and transportation, preparing and recuperation, and to wrapthings up, transfer, are today present city challenges. Themathematical programming and processes have been already used for optimizingthe municipal waste management and transfer system. The waste collection andgarbage-truck allocation problem could be solved by traditional mathematicalmethods such a linear methods.
However, the linear methods show insufficientefficiency in some more difficult cases of waste collection. Large amount ofvariables was the reason for large and hard computation time. The recentresearch works use mostly the heuristic solutions and methods dealing with themunicipal waste management as with a Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP). Dealingwith problem formulation, the effectiveness of optimization and computation isbased on input parameters and specific problem implementation. Just couple ofworks attempted to utilize transformative calculation to manage execution andenhancement of waste gathering issue as the TSP characterizes.
These worksutilize Ant Colony calculation. In any case, the hereditary calculation wasadditionally demonstrated as an extremely viable instrument to manage TSP ofdifferent executions, however not in the particular usage of waste gathering 4. 2.
1 CHALLENGES Challengesfaced while working with wireless sensor networks (WSN)1.Energy – Sensors require control for differentoperations. Vitality is expended in information accumulation, informationstrategy, and information correspondence.
2. Self-management – Oncewhen WSN are deployed it should be capable of working without help of human intervention. 3. Security – Confidentialityis required while data transmission otherwise there is possibility ofeavesdropping attack. 4.
Quality of Service – Quality of service is the level of serviceprovided by the sensor networks to its users. WSN are being used in variousreal time applications, so it is mandatory for the network providers to offer sensibleQoS. 5. FaultTolerance – Sensor network should be able to work even if any node fails whereas theNetwork is operational. Network should be in a position to adapt by changing itsproperty in case of any difficulty. 6.Limited Memory and Storage Space – A sensor is a smalldevice with low quantity of memory and storage space for the code.
In order tomake an effective security mechanism, it is necessary to limit the code size ofthe security algorithm. 2.2SOLUTIONS · DataFreshness – There should be new messages even if confidentiality is assured. · SecureLocalization – Often, the utility of a device network can trust on itsability to accurately mechanically find every sensor within the network. A sensornetwork designed to find fault scan would like correct location data in order topurpose the placement of a fault.
· Privacy – The sensor networks have conjointly force privacy issues.Privacy play an important role.· Securerouting – Routing and dataforwarding is a crucial service for facultative communication in devicenetworks.· DataAvailability – Availability resolves whether or not a node has the capacityto use the resources and whether or not the network is obtainable for themessages to speak.
However, failure of the base station or cluster leader’savailability can eventually threaten the complete sensing element network.Thus availableness is of primary importancefor maintaining associate degree operational network 2.3 PATHOPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES Optimizationand route planning is a well-researched area and many of the transport systemshave been developed before. There are many projects which provides effectivesystem for waste management. One of the advanced routing model proposed in eastern Finland, they used guidedvariable neighbourhood thresholding meta heuristic approach. Garbage truckscheduling model for solid waste management has been proposed by the city ofPorto Alegre in Brazil. In one of the paper novel cloud based approach isemployed. A new method for optimizing the waste collection routes is developed basedon OSGeo software tools.
Some of the path optimizationtechniques has been used there are as follows: Table-1: PathOptimization Techniques Path optimization Techniques 1. ArcGIS Network Analyst and Ant Colony Based on Geo referential spatial Database. Facilitate modelling of realistic traffic condition and different scenarios. 2. MapInfo It is GIS software used for finding shortest path 3.
OS Geo software tool Route planning and optimization software. 3. DIFFERENT APPROACHES AND ALGORITHMS Fig -1: System Overview There are some differentapproaches in paper 9 the proposed system was based on waste data level ofgarbage bins in metropolitan areas. The data was sent over the internet foranalyzing and processing. Everyday new data was collected and on that basis therate of waste level was calculated so as to predict the overflow of binsbefore. Fig 1. Gives the overview of this approach.
Algorithmsused in previous papers for research work was done. 3.1 XML Parsing used for graph processing –The XML parsing is used forthe graph (SVG) processing.
After XML parsing. 3.2 Floyd- Warshall algorithm The Floyd- Warshallalgorithm is applied to distance recalculation. This algorithm was chosen dueto the fact that we are using metric system and there the negative values ofedges are not used. The algorithm (Floyd-Warshall) also computes straight thevertices distance, which is less time consuming than i.
e. Dijkstra Algorithm(which computes distances always for each vertex). 4.
PROPOSEDAPPLICATIONS 1. Waste Level detection inside the garbagebins.Transmission of the information wirelessly toconcerned officials.2. System can be accessed anytime and fromanywhere.3. Real-time data transmission and access.4.
Avoids the overflows of garbage bins.5. This project can only be used by municipalauthorities or other private firms to tackle thecurrent problem of urban waste collection.
6. This system has no individual use, but can beusedby a city, state or a country.7. Using this system, waste collection wouldbecomeefficient and also reduction in transportationcostscan be witnessed. 5.
CONCLUSIONS This survey has been performed for collectingthe details of smart garbage management methods and to find out effectivemethods which are useful for providing hygiene environment in cities. Oursolution is based on the idea of IoT infrastructure, which should provideenough information to handle this Smart City issue more efficiently.