Abstract—This paper basically deals about self drivencars and their vehicle to environment connection toprovide low carbon dioxide emission, avoid accidents.Since car is evolving with time in todays world ninetypercent of car innovation is in electronics. Vehicles aretransformed to a mobile personalised information.Advanced Driver Assistance System permit the securityand safety of drivers and passengers and enhancesautomation in driving.Self-driven cars will bring aheterogeneity of wireless connections for the exchange ofdata with other vehicles and the surrounding environmentall this will aim at understanding the world around it in away to reduces accidents and give passengers confidence inusing these new secure self driven cars.
In this paper wewill be presenting an idea for decreasing the data storageproblem in self driven car and method for handing suchenormous amount of data .The solution is to not store anydata in the car apart from it download everything from thecloud as per the need of vehicle,surrounding and driver. Inthis we are relying on cloud infrastructure for the cloud.Capable reliable wireless and wired communicationtechnologies together with powerful data-processingsystem, at the perk levels of privacy and system security,are analytical. This paper gives an idea what it takes toreally believe the securely connected car of the future.Keywords—CAN, LIN, ADAS, V2X, Ethernet IntroductionIn today’s world wired communication in car is influence byLocal Interconnect Network(LIN) and Controller AreaNetwork(CAN). LIN is a serial network protocol (protocolsare basically some set of defined rules for transmission of databetween deferent devices ) used for transferring informationbetween various component in vehicle.
CAN is basically a busdesigned in such a way to permit micro controller and variousdevices to share information with each other. bandwidth ofLIN is upto 20kbps and CAN is upto 1mbps each of these arecost effective we can achieve high bandwidth link using pointto-pointlinks (shielded cables).There is a demand of a systemwith higher bandwidth and for this we required a newcommunication technology for avoiding the increasing costand weight of copper cable in car. The application whichrequired higher bandwidth include V2X, ADAS,Car radar.For this automotive ethernet is a new point-to-point networkcommunication technology that is based on unshielded twistedpaper (UTP). It gives us an increase of bandwidth ,increaseddata capacity, cost efficient, reducing weight but it leads intoughness of design. this is because of switches, transceiversand controllers used in it.
Deterministic Ethernet points to a technology which uses timescheduling for bringing deterministic real time communicationto a predefined IEEE 802 ethernet.It operates using a globalsense of time.Object Detection will be the most significant application forEthernet , since it requires much higher bandwidth for videotransportation.Ease of UseA. VEHICLE-TO-EVERYTHING(V2X) COMMUNICATIONIt basically involves the sharing of information of vehicle andtraffic related data between cars and different frames .
Themain aim for this is safety with energy saving.It is based onWLAN technology. Examples of V2X messages are warningabout hazardous location,emergency breaking, time of trafficlights.This technology is highly recommended for reducingroad accident, decreasing carbon dioxide emission,improvingthe flow of traffic,enabling autonomous driving. Thistechnology enables a car to trace more than 300 objects andrespond size is less than 20ms and it has a very low latency.Challenges are penetration level of V2X.For having effectivenetwork of cars at least 10% of them must have ITS module.
B. Car radarBasically a radar is used to detect if the speed is beingobserved by cops using a radar gun they are generally used sothat the driver can decrease the cars speed before being caught by the police.It uses the doppler effect to masseur the relativespeed of vehicle.New Car Assessment Program (NCAP)demands self sufficient emergency breaking system andpedestrian protection system. Radar provides range,velocityinformation to different sensors such as camera.Now a daysreducing power consumption or increasing power efficiencycan be achieved by reducing sensor size.The radar IC is usedfor covering 76-81GHz bandwidth for high range resolution.Itis being verified by RFCMOS radars are useful for operatingin micro meter Wave band and by this we can use system onchip automotive radar including processors on a monolithicdie.
C. Automotive QualityDevices in Self driven cars must with stand difficultenvironmental condition there for it requires rigorouspackaging,circuit design,control of processing technologies . Itwill have various constrains, Stricter rules on device size.
As aconsequence this leads to design consuming high power inorder to full fill this robustness requirement .D.Near area information exchangeIt is commonly known as near field communication (NFC).It connects devices over smaller range and high frequencywireless communication technology can be achieved.Itenables the transfer of data between devices about a distanceof 10cm.It interfaces a smart card and a reader into one deviceit permits exchange of data between digital devices like usingcell phone for booking online tickets.As it’s range is very lessit gives a higher degree of security than commonly usebluetooth it can also work if power is not being supplied in thedevice.The most important thing is that the tree operationmodes are supported that is read/write,card emulation anddevice-to-device communication.
E.Ultrawide BandThis technology is used for transmitting processed data over alarge bandwidth.A 100 khz signal is communicated throughmultiple antenna with in the car to make a response in the key,giving information regarding space between the car and thekey by calculating strength of the signal. IEEE suggest adifferent method by calculating the time of flight(TOF) of RFsignal between the source and the destination.The TOFefficiency is directly proposal to signal bandwidth.
It can alsobe used for tracking purpose of wireless monitoring ofwindows or mirror adjustment .F.SecurityThe thing we have discuss like various electronic function itgives driver and increase comfort,safety,accuracy,convenient,but it has some risks with it.This days vehicles are turning to(smart phones on whiles) which processes,store,exchangelarge amount of data.
By using wireless interfaces we canconnected to external network but it increase the probability ofbeing hacked,resulting the vehicle to be more vulnerable tocyber attacks.Hacker’s can gain complete remote control overvehicle.This leads to security by design and privacy by designthe key objects of security system includes hardware forexample(Trust Anchors) which save our data against beinghacked.This are the small crypto chips used in variousproducts like ATM cards.passports,visa but safety system maybe isolated from the entertainment system present in the car.
This architecture needs to be regularly to handle attacks withmore efficiency.We should implement multiple securitytechniques to minimise the ricks of electronics devices that arebeing inside in the car. firstly we need to protect car externalinterfaces as they are prone for remote and scalable attacks thechannel should be secure against data manipulation andunauthorised access by this interfaces.
For providing protectionin this layers cryptographic technologies must be used forencryption and decryption of data received that the receiverside.But securing system with this system are not sufficient.Thesecurity implementation should be isolated from deferent notsecure code.
To secure against side channel attacks hardwareshould be design in such a way that it does not leakunintended information with timing,consumption of power orleakage due to electro magnetic field that could be anadvantage for a hacker to find out information about whathardware is doing or what data are store it.This is all about theinternal protection but physical attack requires physicalprotection.when hackers want to attack IC’s there should besome tamper resistance for detecting some attacks.Forexample people may use integrated sensors and after detectionof the attack it should automatically take appropriate counter masseur like powering of or distorting critical data so that itcan not be stolen.G.Cloud StoringWe will be assuming that the connectivity of the network isavailable though out.
The data which we will be receiving fromvarious sources is not necessary to search space to store itcloud is the exact solution for this.If the data is required thesoftware will use it by downloading it.We should take careabout some external storage to store the area map so that it canbe run even if the network is not available. Now when thedriven will be starting the car the computer will get connect tothe network which will run web console and asked the user tosign in with user name and password which was alreadyregistered with the cloud service provider. The user can nowinput the location were we want to reach,the software willdownload set of programs to process the data and the datawhich is already store in the cloud will be taken by it and it’sstarts processing.
And it will be act as a learning agent whichbasically learn from it’s experiences for example were aparticular person goes often which are it’s favourite routes andit will use this information for the next time.It will also havethe privacy which the user want.Suppose a user want to go tothe place were the network is not available so the vehicleautomatically store the dat in advance.And if it sea a networkissue it will asked the user to drive manually.When thelocation is reached the software delete all the data thusincrease the security .Self driven car will also spot themechanical problem in advanced and even repair it.Selfdriving cars uses two dimensional camera and “LiDAR” torecognise different objects.H.
Types of Automation1.No Automation: This is level zero automation in which thedriver is the only person who will be having control overvehicle such as break accelerator staring.2.Function defined automation: This is level one automationin which one or more function will be automated for examplea car which have automatic gear will automatically changeinside the system.It basically assist the driver.
.3.Combine function automation: In this level minimal of twooperation should be automatic for example the driver mayhave his hand and foot at a particular time while which thevehicle will be operating on the car .ConclusionThis self driven fully connected cars will only be a reality ifthey are secure and 100% reliable.The quality and security arethe foremost requirement to gain customer confidence in thishighly advanced new technology.Functionality like V2X,carradar, ethernet are all ready available but will continue toincrease performance as well as their integration.
AcknowledgmentWe would like to show our special thanks of gratitude to ourprofessor Dr. Ramesh Vaddi for providing us this goldenopportunity and guiding us. By this project we came to knowabout recent trends in VLSI design and we have searchedthoroughly and as our interest lies in the field of car wechoose topics related to autonomous driven cars.We want tothank our friends for motivating us and a sincere thanks to allthe faculty of IIIT NR for giving us exposure so that our mindcan think in an experimental way.REFERENCES1. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/icp.jsp?arnumber=7417892#article2.https://www.computerworld.com/article/2484219/emergingtechnology/self-driving-cars-could-create-1gb-of-data-asecond.html3.http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7015485/