ABSTRACTE-Governance stands for Electronic Governance. It is the mechanism for deliveringbasic government services electronically to the citizens. Government of India has approvedNational e Governance Plan (NeGP), comprising of27 Mission Mode Projects(MMPs). For Implementation of e-Governance in Punjab, Government of Punjab hasentrusted DOIT (Department of Information Technology) which formulate policy,give technical advice to all the Government Departments for effectiveimplementation of e-Governance projects in the state.
PSEGS (Punjab Statee-Governance Society) societies are formed by Government for effectiveimplementation of e-Governance projects. ICT has enabled citizen’sparticipation in e-Governance through effective interaction between theGovernment and the citizen andthereby developing a close partnership between the two. In this whitepaper, we describe how thisnewly emerged paradigm of cloud computing can be helpful for E-Governance inPunjab.KeywordsICT,Cloud,MMPs1. INTRODUCTIONThe worldwide revolution in Internet is changing our livesin terms of the way we work, learn andinteract.
These changes naturally should reflect the way government functionsin terms of theorganization of the government, its relationship with its citizens,institutions and businesses andcooperation with other governments. Also, the increasing generalization oftechnology access by citizenand organizations brings expectations and demands on government. At the sametime, governments arealso proactive in this domain and are planning new ways of interacting,improving services,optimizing processesand revitalizing democracy by spending amount on IT. 2.
Objectives The primary purpose ofgovernance is the welfare of citizens. While one aspect of governancerelates to safeguarding the legal rights of all citizens, an equally importantaspect is concerned withensuring equitable access to public services and the benefits of economicgrowth to all. It is expectedthat e-Governance would enable the government to discharge its functions moreeffectively. e-Governance is, in essence, the application of Information andCommunications Technology to government functioning in order to create ‘Simple,Moral, Accountable, Responsive and Transparent (SMART) governance.
This wouldgenerally involve the use of ICTs by government agencies for any or all of thefollowing reasons:· Exchange of Informationwith citizens, businesses or other government department.· Speedier and MoreEfficient delivery of public services· Improving internalefficiency· Reducing Costs/Increasing Revenue· Re-Structuring ofadministrative processes and improving quality of services. Thesetechnologies can serve a variety ofdifferent ends: better delivery of government services to citizens, improvedinteractions with businessand industry, citizen empowerment through access to information, or moreefficient governmentmanagement. The resulting benefits can be less corruption , increasedtransparency greater convenience, revenue growth, and /or cost reductions.e-Governance aims to make the interaction between government and citizens(G2C), government and business enterprises (G2B), and inter-agencyrelationships (G2G) more friendly, convenient, transparent, and inexpensive. 3. Mission Mode Projects (MMPs)TheseMMPs have been divided in three categories according to their nature &implementing strategy of the project. We will discuss only State MMPs asbelow:-1.
e-District2. Agriculture3. Commercial Taxes4. CCTNS-Police5. Land Record6. Road Transport7. Treasuries8. Panchayat Raj9.
Employment Exchange10. Municipal Corporation11. Education12. Health13. PDS 4. Punjab and e-GovernacePunjab is among the one of the richest states of India which islocated in the northwest of the Country. It covers 50,362 sq. km geographicalareawhich is 1.
54% of Country’s total geographical area. Department of InformationTechnology (DoIT) of India provided e-Readiness report according to whichPunjab is one of the leading states of Indiamaking the use of ICTs (Informationand Communication technologies).Government of Punjab has entrusted DOIT(Department of Information Technology) in the state of Punjab which formulatepolicy, give technical advice to all the Government Departments foreffectiveimplementation of eGovernance projects in the state. Various services providedunder e-Governance in Punjab are:- i. SUWIDHA ii. State Portal and StateService Delivery Gateway (SSDG) iii. e-Districts iv. VAHAN and SARATHI v.
Web-based Counseling for PSBTE (Punjab State Board of TechnicalEducation) vi. Punjab Government Personnel Management System vii. ITISP ( Integrated Treasuries Information System of Punjab) viii. PRISM (Property Registration Information System Module) 4.1 Types ofE-GovernanceAll theapplications fall under these categories Fig 1: Types of e-Governance 4.
2 Components of e-GovernanceElements of three tier architecture with an over view ofE-Government services is presented below. ForE-Governance services three tier architecture is used because it providesfollowing advantages:• Heterogeneous Systems: Applications can utilize strengths of different platformsand different software components at the different tiers• Modifiability: As responsibilities are separated, it becomes easy to replacethe code at any tier without affecting other tiers as modifiability is imp architecturaldriver of the case.• Scalability to handle many clients: Each client is light weight and allaccess to the system is through the middle tier. The middle tier can share thedatabase connection across the clients, and if middle tier becomes bottleneck,we can deploy several servers executing the middle tier code; clients canconnect to any of these servers.• Integrated Data Access: In many applications, the data must be accessed fromseveral sources. This can be handled transparently at the middle tier, where wecan centrally manage connections to all database system involved. 4.
3 E-governanceLife-Cycle (Models/Stages)Inthe presently accessible relevant literature there’s no agreement concerningthe stages in e-governance provision models. Some authors contemplate thatsolely 3 stages square measure needed, whereas others believe that there mustbe four, on the opposite hand 5 or maybe 6 stages square measure needed byothers researchers.Howard16 divided e-governance into 3 stages (Publication, Interaction, and groupaction). Chandler and Emanuel 17 divided e-governance into 4 stages(Information, Interaction, group action, and Integration). To boot, 18 havedivided e-governance into 4 stages: (Cataloguing, Transaction, Vertical Integration,and Horizontal Integration).Moreover,in line with UNESA 19, e-governance services maturity may be classify into 5stages: (Emerging Presence, increased Presence, Interactive Presence, groupaction Presence, and Networked Presence).
Deloitte, 20 classify e-governanceinto 6 stages: (Information business enterprise, Official Two- methodTransactions, Multi- Purpose Portals, Portal personalization, agglomeration ofCommon Services, Full Integration and Enterprise Transformation).4.4 e-Sarkare-Sarkar is a turnkey project which meets the entirerequirements of Software, Hardware, Network, data Centre, technical Support,Operation and maintenance of helpdesk for a period of five years aftersuccessful implementation. In order to streamline and improve upon itsfunctioning, bring efficiency, transparency and accountability in itsoperations and to put effective delivery of services to its stakeholdersGovernment of Punjab is implementing e-Sarkar constituting: Integrated WorkflowDocument Management System (IWDMS) in Punjab Civil Secretariat &Ÿ Integrated Financial Management System (IFMS) in Department ofFinance. These projects would automate the core functioning of the StateGovernment and covers all the transactions under the Department of Finance,various planning schemes under the Department of Planning and the entirerequirements of various administrative departments within the Punjab CivilSecretariat I and II. 4.5PSTNDepartment of TechnicalEducation is under process for implementation of Project “Punjab State TechnicalEducation Network (PSTEN)”. The Detailed progress Report (DPR) for PSTEN isbeing prepared by NIC.
The purpose of PSTEN would be to provide seamlesscommunication between all theparticipating institutions in terms of live transmission of classroom teachingin one institution to all theother institutions, facilitate interactive learning wherein students across theinstitution shall be able toask question to the instructor, support peer learning, co-share learningresources, hand-outs and digitalbook, write online examination. The network’s e-learning module would help inovercoming acuteshortage of trained and qualified faculty member. Further students studying ininstitutions withinadequate staff of inadequate trained staff shall have the unique opportunityof listening to experts and high quality lecturers being taught in otherinstitutions. These servicesshall be boon to about6.5 lacs student studying in 700 educational institutions of the state. 4.5AGRISNETMissionMode Project under National e-Governance Plan of Government of India,Department of Agriculture & Co-operation. Ministry of Agriculture hasdecided to launch a Central Sector Scheme titled, “Strengthening /Promoting Agricultural Informatics & Communications” of which one componentis AGRISNET.
Department of Agriculture, Punjab has initiated to introduce e-Governanceby leveraging ICT to provide agriculture related information or data and to improveupon its functioning in order to bringefficiency, transparency and accountability. Currently the project is in theadvance stage of finalizingProject Consultant.4.
6 e-Officee-Officeenvisages transforming conventional Government Offices into more efficient andtransparent e-Offices, eliminating huge amounts of paper work. Government ofPunjab has decided to computerize all the branches of Deputy Commissioners andthe offices of Divisional Commissioners. For Computerization of these offices;National Informatics Centre (NIC) Punjabhas been given responsibility of implementation of the e-Office (ElectronicOffice) software. NIC Punjab has already completed the assessment ofcomputing infrastructure of various field offices of the State and has submittedthe techno-commercial proposal of Rs.41.70 crores.
The e-Officeproduct pioneered by National Informatics Centre (NIC) aims to supportgovernance by using in more effective and transparent inter and intraGovernment Processes. The Mansa district has been selected as a Pilot districtfor the implementation of e-Office project. 4.7e-Districte-District projectenvisages integrated and seamless delivery of citizen services by districtadministration through automation of workflow, backend computerization, datadigitization across participating departments. The initiative has provisionsfor seamless integration of various offices situated at District, Sub-division,Tehsil and Block level etc. for providing services to the citizens through a commondelivery interface. SUWIDHA Centres and Gram SUWIDHA Kendras would be theprimary front end channels.In Punjab, e-District project has been implemented in two pilot districts ofKapurthala & SBS Nagar.
TheProject aims at electronic delivery of identified high volume citizen centricservices, at district and subdistrict level, with a view to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of theservice delivery. The projectenvisages leveraging and utilizing the four pillars of e-infrastructure namely,State Data Centres (SDCs),State Wide Area Network (SWANs), State Service Delivery Gateways (SSDGs) andGram SUWIDHAKendras (CSC Scheme), optimally to deliver public services electronically tocitizens at their door steps.New services will be added to the portfolio subsequently, once the demand forthe initial set of e-enabledservices increases. 5.Conclusion e-Governance is mechanism for improving the working of government. Number of e-Governanceservices has been implemented in state of Punjab.
These services are reallybeneficial for the citizens. Citizens do not need to visit different officesfor payments of bills and availing other government services. But most of therural citizens of Punjab are not aware of these e-Governance services. So, forproper utilization of e-Governance services it is necessary to create awarenessamong the masses.
Rural citizens should be motivated to make use of theseservices.