Abstract computing and how it has made


have become an important part of life. We need computers everywhere, be it for
work, research or in any such field. As the use of computers in our daily life
increases, the computing resources that we need also go up. As the computing resources
increases so does the problems that comes with it such as machines failure and
software bugs etc. Cloud computing offers a solution to this situation. As it
increases the efficiency of the users of any field by providing them services
through which the recourses are shared over the internet. The purpose of this
research is to describe the usage of cloud computing by the users of any field
and also to find out why they choose cloud computing and how it has made their
lives easier. The main aim of this report is to know the users satisfaction
level through the use of cloud computing. Survey is the methodology we used to
get information from the participants of any field. The results shows that
cloud computing has a positive impact on the participants of any field. However
it has many advantages that are beneficial but has some limitations to it.


1.0 -Introduction

to the technological advancement in the field of Information Technology (IT). Online
technologies have changed the way of learning. Cloud is a term used as a
metaphor for the wide area networks (like internet) or any such large networked
environment. Cloud computing is a way in which services are being provided to
the users through the internet where they can store their data and information.
Cloud consists of large number of computers that are interconnected through a
huge network either located in same or different geographical locations,
operating together to serve a number of customers with different needs with
help of virtualization. Cloud services are provided to the cloud users as
utility services like water, electricity and telephone using pay-as-you-use
business model. Cloud users use these services provided by the cloud providers from
there build their applications in the internet and thus deliver them to their
end users. In this way the cloud users don’t have to worry about installing or
maintaining physical hardware and software needed for its use, and also allow
users to reduce their expenditure in the field of IT using or maintaining their
own cloud services they can use already made cloud services that are provided..
Though it is not a new idea that emerged just recently. In 1969 1 L. Klein
rock anticipated, “As of now, computer networks are still in their infancy. But
as they grow up and become more sophisticated, we will probably see the spread
of ‘computer utilities’ which, like present electric and telephone utilities,
will service individual homes and offices across the country.”

brief main aim of cloud computing is to provide storage or hosting services such
as online data storage and backup solutions that are inexpensive over a large
network. In recent year’s organizations and other fields such as education,
health and telecommunications etc. are concentrating more on using cloud
services due to its accessibility of virtualized resources.

the aim of this research is to present, not only the use or services offered by
the cloud in any field but also how cloud computing is perceived by them. It
discussed why there is a need for cloud computing in near future. It also talks
about the user’s opinion towards the usage of cloud computing in terms to their
personal preferences and satisfaction.


Chapter 1: Basics of Cloud Computing

Before investigating the usage of cloud computing,
it is important to know the types of clouds, the services it provides and the
applications that can be used by the users.  .. .. … … …
… … … .. ..

The model for connecting the systems and software
needed it to work are not fully defined at the moment, leaving many
organizations to make their own cloud technologies, e.g.: IBM “Blue Cloud”
technologies are based on open standards and open source software which link
companies together to provide Web 2.0 capabilities like mash-ups or mobile
commerce.  .. .. … … … … … … .. ..


1.1 What is Cloud Computing?

The common term for the delivery of hosted services
over internet is called cloud computing. It enables the companies to fully
utilize a resource, such as storage or an application, as an advantage rather than
having to build and maintain computing equipment in a house. .

The word “cloud” is used a metaphor for “internet”,
so the expression cloud computing means “a type of internet based computing”.
The cloud infrastructure is maintained by the provider not the customer.  .. .. … … … … … … .. ..

It has obtained mass appeal in business as it
enables their data center to operate like the internet throughout the process
of enabling computing resources to be accessed and shared. Small businesses can
access these resources and expand or shrink them as business needs change.
Third party clouds enable companies to focus on their core businesses instead
of spending on computer infrastructure and maintenance. The main aim of cloud
computing is to allow users to benefit from all the technologies without the
need of extensive knowledge or expertise. 
 .. .. … … 
 … … .. ..

There are two types of cloud computing: Public and
Private. The main difference between public and private is that public cloud is
not responsible for any of the management, whereas private cloud hosting is
inside the company’s intranet
and all the company’s data is protected by a firewall.  .. .. … … … … … … .. ..


1.2. What are components of Cloud Computing?

Cloud computing is the delivery
of computing services—servers, storage, databases, networking, software,
analytics and more—over the Internet (“the cloud”). Companies offering these
computing services are called cloud providers and typically charge for cloud
computing services based on usage, similar to how you are billed for water or
electricity at home. Cloud is essentially provided by large distributed data centers.
These data centers are often organized as grid and the cloud is built on top of
the grid services. Cloud users are provided with virtual images of the physical
machines in the data centers. This virtualization is one of the key concept of
cloud computing as it essentially builds the abstraction over the physical
system. Many cloud applications are gaining popularity day by day for their
availability, reliability, scalability and utility model. The goal of cloud computing is to allow users to take benefit from all
of these technologies, without the need for deep knowledge about or expertise
with each one of them. The cloud aims to cut costs, and helps the users focus
on their core business instead of being impeded by IT obstacles.The main enabling
technology for cloud computing is virtualization. Virtualization software
separates a physical computing device into one or more “virtual”
devices, each of which can be easily used and managed to perform computing


1.3 Types of clouds

are three types of clouds2


Private cloud services are delivered from
a business’s data center to internal users. This model offers the versatility
and convenience of the cloud, while preserving the management, control and
security common to local data centers. Internal users may or may not be billed
for services through IT chargeback. 


Public cloud is what most people refer to
when they say “cloud computing.” It refers to a computing service model used
for cloud storage and computation services to the general public over the
internet. Moreover, you can access the IT resources on a “pay as you go”
billing model. There are different advantages of both cloud computing systems.



A hybrid cloud is a
combination of public cloud services and an on-premises private cloud, with
orchestration and automation between the two.The
goals of a hybrid cloud is to create a unified, automated, scalable environment
that takes advantage of all that a public cloud infrastructure can provide,
while still maintaining control over mission-critical data.


1.4 Demand and Need for Cloud Computing

could we do with 1000 times more data and CPU power? One of the simple question
that tells the important factor which on later becomes the basis or foundation
on the use of cloud computing in near future. As the amount of data that an
application handles is increasing day by day and so is the CPU power that one
can harness. With this much CPU power in hand, we could scale our businesses to
1000 times more users, monitor every single user interaction and gather
statistics about the user. In this way we could improve the recommendations
system of users. We could model better price plan choices.


There are lots
of other things we could do with so much CPU power and capabilities. But what
is holding us back. One of the reasons is the large scale architecture what comes
with these are difficult to manage. There may be many different problems with
the architecture we have to support. The hardware of machine may start failing,
the hard drives may crash, the network may go down and many other such problem.
The hardware has to be designed such that the architecture is reliable and scalable.
This large scale architecture has a very expensive upfront and has high
maintenance costs. It requires different resources like machines, power
cooling, etc. The system also cannot scale as and needed and so is not easily


The resources
are also constrained by the resources. As the applications become large, they
become I/O bound. The hard drive access speed becomes a limiting factor. Though
the raw CPU power available may not be a factor, the amount of RAM available
clearly becomes a factor. This is also limited in this context. If at all the
hardware problems are managed very well, there arises the software problems.

There may be
bugs in the software using this much of data. The workload also demands two
important tasks for two completely different people. The Software has to be
such that it is bug free and has good data processing algorithms to manage all
the data.


The cloud
computing works on the cloud – so there are large groups of often low-cost
servers with specialized connections to spread the data-processing chores among
them. Since there are a lot of low-cost servers connected together, there are
large pools of resources available. So these offer almost unlimited computing
resources. This makes the availability of resources a lesser issue.


The data of the
application can also be stored in the cloud. Storage of data in the cloud has
many distinct advantages over other storages. One thing is that data is spread
evenly through the cloud in such a way that there are multiple copies of the
data and there are ways by which failure can be detected and the data can be
rebalanced on the fly. The I/O operations become simpler in the cloud such that
browsing and searching for something in 25GB or more of data becomes simpler in
the cloud, which is nearly impossible to do on a desktop.

The cloud
computing applications also provide automatic reconfiguration of the resources
based on the service level agreements. When we are using applications out of
the cloud, to scale the application with respect to the load is a mundane task
because the resources have to be gathered and then provided to the users. If
the load on the application is such that it is present only for a small amount
of time as compared to the time its working out of the load, but occurs
frequently, then scaling of the resources becomes tedious. But when the
application is in the cloud, the load can be managed by spreading it to other
available nodes by making a copy of the application on to them. This can be
reverted once the load goes down. It can be done as and when needed. All these
are done automatically such that the resources maintain and manage themselves.


Chapter 2. Cloud Computing Advantages &

Nowadays many
organizations and other fields such as education, health and Telecommunication
etc. are becoming more concerned with the storage of big data. Cloud computing
plays an important role in the development of any field. Users of cloud
computing have the opportunity to quickly access various application platforms
and resources through web pages. There was a time when organizations used to
spend lots of money in maintaining their own servers, which results in waste of
time and cost. There was a huge risk of data loss but the development of cloud
computing helped organizations in various ways such as safety of data as it can
be easily stored and can be accessed. In spite of its many benefits, cloud
computing also has its disadvantages 3,4.


2.1 Advantages:


Cloud computing
is the most cost efficient method to use, maintain and upgrade. Traditional
desktop software costs companies a lot in terms of finance. Adding up the
licensing fees for multiple users can prove to be very expensive for the
establishment concerned. The cloud on the other hand, is available at much cheaper
rates and hence, can significantly lower the company’s IT expenses. Besides,
there are many onetime payment, pay as you go and other scalable options
available, which makes it very reasonable for the company in question.



It also provide to
users unlimited storage capacity. Hence, they don’t have to worry about running
out of storage capacity.


& Recovery

Cloud computing
helps to keep a backup of the data and information. Organizations can easily
accessed the data through the service provided by cloud computing e.g. Amazon
web services, Google App Engine etc. Since all the data is stored in the cloud,
backing it up and restoring the same is relatively much easier than storing the
same on physical device. Hence, this makes the entire process of backup and
recovery much simpler than other traditional methods of data storage.


Access to Information

Once the users register
themselves to the cloud, they can access the information from anywhere, where
there is an internet connection. This convenient feature lets them move beyond
time zone and geographical location issues.


2.2 Disadvantages


Though it is
true that information and data on the cloud can be accessed anytime from
anywhere at all, there are times when this system can have serious dysfunction.
Even the best cloud service providers run into this kind of trouble, in spite
of keeping up high standards of maintenance. The users can’t have access to
information or data, if there is a lack of internet support i.e. work methods
of users could be affected due to lack of internet.


in Cloud

The other major
issue in the cloud is that of security issues. Before adopting this technology,
users’ needs to know that they are surrendering their sensitive information to
a third party cloud service provider. This could potentially put them at high
risk. Hence, they need to make sure to choose the most reliable cloud service
provider, who will keep their information totally secure.


to Attack

information in the cloud could make the company vulnerable to external hack
attacks and threats. As they are well aware, nothing on the internet is
completely secure and hence, there is always the lurking possibility of stealth
of sensitive data.


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