ABSTRACT also because of dumping of E-Waste from

ABSTRACTE-Waste is one of the rapidly growing problems ofthe world.

It comprises of old, end-of-life electronic appliances such ascomputers, laptops, TVs, DVD players, Refrigerators, freezers, mobiles, MP3players, Washing machines etc. Our planet is suffering from environment relatedproblems and now electronic waste is also in the list. E-Waste consists ofmultitude of components, some containing toxic substances like lead, cadmiumand some acids that can have an adverse impact on human health and theenvironment.Life is getting easier as the technology is growing rapidly.But onthe other hand equal amount of mess is created in the name of waste.

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In India, E-Wastemanagement assumes greater significance not only due to the generation of itsown E-Waste but also because of dumping of E-Waste from developed countries.This is coupled with India’s lack of appropriate infrastructure and proceduresfor its disposal and recycling. Putting the onus of recycling of E-Waste onproducers, the MOEF has for the first time notified E-Waste management rules.(2011).This paper is associated with issues, impacts and remedies of thisemerging problem, in the light of initiatives in India. It includes Reduction,Reuse, and Recycling of E-Waste.

Reduce your generation of E-Waste throughsmart procurement and good maintenance. Reuse still functioning electronicequipment by donating or selling it to others who can use it, recycle thoseproducts that can’t be repaired by finding an appropriate organization.INTRODUCTIONIt mighthave taken decades of years to develop things and make it right for the properuse.We are in the rapid development phase of the technology where the output isquick and easily obtained.Globalization and informationtechnology are being widely recognized as main drivers of the humancivilization in the later part of twentieth century and the 21st century.

Manhas become very much addicted to the technology that his day begins and endswith the use of technology. The Information Technology (IT) has been the powerhouse of the global economy particularly since early 1990s. Software andhardware part of IT has touched most of the parts of social, technical,economic and natural environment.Many devices are constructed and created withthe latest advancement. Exponentially increasing production of computerhardware has posed major challenges of proper disposal of the waste (e-waste)produced by this industry.Any electronic device is not permanent it has aparticular lifetime after which usually they are disposed. Current studyfocuses on the effect of usage, dumping and recycling of the electronic wasteon the natural environment.

  The paperhas five sections.  In the introductionsection size of the global and Indian electronics market (particularlycomputers) has been presented. Next section is born out of hazardous impact ofdifferent chemicals disposed in environment in the process of computer usage,disposal and inefficient recycling. The   third section brings out thedynamics of international trade, environmental regulations and technologytransfer issues for comprehensive understanding of e-waste issues mainly causedby computers. The fourth section describes the case of India in this regardwhich has been presented in the above mentioned broader context.

The paper isconcluded with discussion, conclusion and recommendations for better managementof e-waste.  I.                 ELECTRONICS:THE GROWING INDUSTRY Global electronicequipment production has grown from $225 billion in 1980 to almost $1 trillionin 2000, which equates to a compound average annual growth of 7.7 percent overthe past 20 years. In 1980, half of all electronics systems were manufacturedin North America, one quarter in Europe and the balance split between Japan andthe rest of Asia. The personal computer was just emerging and the transition todigital telecommunications switching was in full swing.

A dramatic shift inproduction leadership occurred over the next ten years.  Several factors contributed to this rapidshift in global electronic equipment production. During the 1980s, the Japaneseeconomy was the envy of the world. GDP per capita had risen from $5,000 in 1960to $15,000 in 1980, and by 1990 had reached $22,000.

Through the companies likeSony, Panasonic etc. of Japan had become the clear leader in innovation ofconsumer electronic products and high volume sophisticated electronic assembly.The combination of growing indigenous demand, global consumer electronicsproduct leadership, and many years of investment in manufacturing technologyand capacity certainly benefited worldwide electronics producers during the1980s. The last ten years have spawned enormous change in the global economyand in the electronics industry because of Democratization of Eastern Europeand the integration of the EU economies, an increasingly pragmatic commercialorientation by China, ? Rapidly increasingeconomic growth elsewhere in Asia,  ? The longest economicexpansion in the USA, ? Low cost productionfrom Japan and ? The bursting of the”bubble” economy  Asian production has continued to thrive, surpassing$200 billion in 2000 and accounts for more than 20 percent of total productionworldwide.

Asian production of electronics is to a large extent export-driven.But investment was focused to serve the personal computer industry, cellulartelephone production, as well as fulfillment of fast-growing domestic demandfor consumer and industrial electronics. This has encouraged the manufacturingbase for continued expansion. China India, Brazil and other developingcountries are playing an increasing role in the IT market. IT related industryis expected to grow 11% in 2006. In the last five years (1995-2000), the IndianIT industry has recorded a CAGR (Compounded Annual Growth Rate) of more than42.4 per cent, which is almost double the growth rate of IT industries in manyof the developed countries. Over the decade the industry has developed morethan 150 major hardware players, supported by over 800 ancillary units andsmall time vendors engaged in sub assemblies and equipment manufacturing.

Allthis has increased the installed base to more than 5 million PCs and as onDecember 31, 2000, the penetration rate to more than 5 PCs per 1,000people.  II.              FORMSOF E-WASTEElectronic Waste (e-waste) is the term used todescribe old, end-of-life electronic appliances such as computers, laptops, TVs,DVD players, mobile phones, mp3 players etc. which have been disposed of bytheir original users. Technically, electronic waste is only a subset of WEEE(Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment).

According to the OECDany appliance using an electric power supply that has reached its       end-o f-life would come under WEEE.Acknowledging the benefits of IT revolution this section presents darkerreality of information technology. Very speed of innovation that lies at theheart of computer manufacturer leads to the product obsolescence. The realityof computer life cycle reveals a hazardous life cycle. The dark side of hightechnological development of electronic industry, especially computertechnology, is revealed in the form of polluted drinking water, wastedischarges that cause harm to fish, birth defects, high rate of miscarriage andcancer among cluster workers. Rapid changes incomputer technology and the emergence of new electronic goods,   the growing dependence on informationtechnology, increasing rates of consumption of electronic products have led todisastrous environmental consequences.

This high tech benefits and boom in themarket lead to extensive use of electronic goods, especially computers. Allthis is turning the face of the industry and collectively form a problem ofelectronic waste the percentage of waste that is technology-related is growingat an alarming rate. In a recent study researchers found that the volume ofe-waste is increasing by 3 – 5% per year, which is almost three times fasterthan the municipal waste stream is growing generally. The lifespan of acomputer has shrunk from four or five years to about two years Electronics, thelargest and fastest growing manufacturing industry in the world, aggressivelypromotes a culture of fast obsolescence and increased consumption.

Largeamounts of dangerous chemicals are present in computer and other electronicgoods.  The toxicity is due to lead,mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium (ChromiumVI), brominated flameretardants, plastic, PVC etc. as follows in table: A typical computermonitor may contain more than 6 percent lead by weight. In general, computerand electronic equipments are complicated assembly of more than 1000 materials,few of them are highly toxic such as chlorinated and brominated substances,toxic gases, photoactive and biological active materials acids plastics andplastic additives (Clean computer campaign).

Each computer display contains anaverage of 4-8 pound of lead (MCC: 1996). Monitor glass contains about 20percent lead by weight. When these components are illegally disposed andcrushed in landfills, the lead is released into the environment, posing ahazardous legacy for current and future generations.  About 70 percent of theheavy metals including mercury and cadmium, found in landfills come fromelectronic equipments discarded by the users. These heavy metals and otherhazardous substances  found inelectronics items, contaminate ground water and pose environmental and publichealth risks,  (Poison PC and Toxic TV) Asingle component of computer waste, Cathode Rays Tube (CRTs), has emerged asthe  leading edge of hazardous waste atthe local, state, national and international level.

CRTs are the glass PictureTubes in computer monitors and other video display devices that amplify andfocus high energy electrons beam to create the images, which we ultimately seein our screens. In order to protectconsumers from radiation damages, the glass in CRTs contain lead compasseswhich is approximately 20 percent of each CRT. Lead is an example of heavymetal, a metallic element that is in pure form heavy. According to Xinhua NewsAgency, China has generated roughly 1.1 million tons of e-waste annually since2015, including 5 million TV sets, 4 million refrigerators, 5 million washingmachines, 5 million computers, and tens of millions of mobile phones and itwill continue to pile up. Greenpeace estimates that by 2016, there will be 178million new computer users in China alone. The U.

S. National Safety Councilpredicts that in that country alone between 315 million and 680 millioncomputers will become obsolete within the next few years. The waste willcontain more than 2 billion kg of plastic, 0.5 billion kg of lead, 1 million kgof cadmium, 0.5 million kg of chromium and nearly 200,000 kg of mercury.

Environmentalists also worry that with the popularity of new liquid crystaldisplay technology, an increasing number of old monitors using cathode raytubes are ending up in the trash.  Thedisposal problem regarding the tens of millions of first generation mobilephones are today’s emerging challenge. · Total estimated  e-waste generated from computer , television,refrigerator and washing machines is 1,46,180 tones and is expected to go upto  around 1,600,000 by2012.

(CII,2006)    III.            REASONSOF THE FLOW OF E-WASTETO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES Only 20 percent of electronic waste is being recycled globally every year asincomes rises and prices fall, predictions for the future are lookinggrim.’Equal in weight to almost nine Great Pyramids of Giza, 4,500 EiffelTowers, or 1.23 million fully-loaded, 18-wheel, 40-ton trucks, enough to form aline 28,160km long, the distance from New York to Bangkok and back.’ That’s thescale of the world’s growing amount of electronic waste, according to the UnitedNations University (UNU), which has co-authored the TheGlobal E-waste Monitor 2017.

 Due to lower environmental standards andworking conditions in China and India, e-waste is being sent to these countriesfor processing – in most cases illegally. Uncontrolled burning and disposal arecausing environmental problems due to the methods of processing the waste. Thelabor-intensive nature of electronic waste recycling, abundant, cheap andskilled labor force and generation of huge profits for local governments causesthe authorities to turn a blind eye to this practice.

Thus, they serve aspassive encouragement to its spread.   Itis more convenient and also economical to export e-waste to the third worldcountries like India, rather than managing and incurring high environmental andeconomic cost.  Various departments ofthe government, public as well as private sectors are responsible for fastfeeding of old electronic appliances such as computers, telephones, mobilephone, etc, into the waste stream.

Other sources of e-waste are retailers,individual households, foreign embassies, PC manufacturing units, players ofthe secondary market, and imported electronic scraps from other countries.Individual households have the least contribution in generating of IT productobsolescence. Most Indian households prefer to pass their obsolete technologyto near and dear ones or exchange it from the retailer. It is the illegaldumping of junked computers from other parts of the world that generates thebiggest part of the e-waste In India; the mountains of e-waste have not yetmanifested themselves. This is because of the propensity not to throw awayequipment, even if it is obsolete, till it becomes totally unserviceable.

But,in the younger generation, this attitude is changing and the throwaway cultureof the west is slowly permeating into the country. Another factor limitinggeneration of e-waste in India is that we do not have a sizeable IT hardwaremanufacturing infrastructure as yet. We also commenced large scalecomputerization a bit late in this country, compared to the developedcountries.Overall E-Waste generated in the upcoming years is estimated in theform of graphical representation. IV.

          TOTAL AMOUNT OF E-WASTE IN INDIA Around 1,050 tonnes ofelectronic scrap is being produced by manufacturers and assemblers in a singlecalendar year. ? In a single month,there is a reported case of import of 30 metric tonnes (MT) of e- waste atAhmadabad port. ? The minimum number ofcomputers procured by an average scale scrap dealer is 20-25 per month. ? The approximatenumber of scrap dealers specializing in electronics, in and around Delhi, ismore than 40. This figure also includes large scale dealers who handlethousands of PCs per month.

? Approximately 1.38million personal computers become obsolete every year. ? The IT and IT enableservices are expanding at a faster rate in and around the national capitalregion like: Delhi, Gurgoan and Noida. Over the last five years, the Indian ITindustry has recovered a compound annual growth rate of more than 42.4 %, whichis almost double the growth rate of IT industry in many of the developingcountries. Indian configuration of PC per 500 people is going to change to 1for 50 by 2008. ? The total WEEEgeneration in India has been estimated to be 1, 46,180 tonnes per year based onselected EEE tracer items.

Almost 50% of the PCs sold in India are productsfrom the secondary market and are re-assembled on old components. The remainingmarket share is covered by multinational manufacturers (30%) and Indian (22%)brands.  ? Mumbai currently topsthe list of major cities with e-waste.

? Foreign companieshelping Indian importers bypass government regulations to bring in the goodsfor recycling. ? Bangalore may begenerating 10,000 to 15,000 tons of e-waste every month, according to industrysources. The Karnataka State Pollution Control Board has put it at 10,000 tonsa month. Along with discarded obsolete hardware, many western countries areselling off their e-waste as scrap and some of this reach scraps dealers inthis city. Metal components and some of the outer casings are resold, while therest of the computers are dumped haphazardly. V.              POLLUTIONPREVENTION HIERARCHY   VI.

          INTRODUCINGGREEN ELECTRONICS The most urgentchallenge domestic manufacturer’s face is to use “greener” design. TheLegislative process embodies two considerations: one is to encourage therecycling and reuse of resources, and second the other is environmental protection,a clear principle is that sending e-waste to landfills or incinerators will bestrictly prohibited.       VII.         IMPLICATIONSAND SUGGESTIONS Reusing and recyclingthe raw materials from end-of- life electronics conserve s natural resourcesand avoids solid waste, air and water pollution, as well as greenhouse gasemissions.

By donating your used electronics, you allow schools, non-profitorganizations, and lower- income families to use equipment that they otherwisecould not afford. Regardless of whether e-waste being processed in developingcountries is domestic or imported, there is a clear need for environmentallyand economically effective systems for reuse and recycling. We need to improvethe environmental performance of all economic operators involved in thelifecycle of the electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) and in particularoperators directly involved in the treatment of WEEE through the principle ofExtended Producers Responsibility, Prevention need to be promoted to contributeto the environmentally sound recovery and disposal of WEEE.

Further, the use ofhazardous substances needs to be regulated. It is not possible to foresee everyconceivable ill and legislate accordingly. Some environmental issues are ofglobal proportions, and the „wait and see? philosophy is simply too dangerousbecause the impending environmental disaster could be beyond our means torepair. In the long term, pro-active measures must be used which involveaddressing the whole life environmental impact. Both short and long termactivities can, if properly managed, lead to improved (or new) businessopportunities. Problem cannot be solved by only purchasing a few sets of fancyrecycling machines from developed countries. Lacking in advanced technology yetrich in labor, India should develop a path for e-waste recycling that issuitable to its current situation; the most important thing at present is toguarantee the safety of the disassembly and treatment process, while takingfull consideration of the environment and worker’s health.

Such reform,however, would require an overhaul of the country’s labor rights structure aswell as greater enforcement of environmental regulations. There is an immediateneed for collaboration between industry, government, environmental groups, andcitizens to solve the problems of e-waste, e-scrap, e-surplus, e-junk, ande-discards. There are two immediate solutions, which must happen through acombination of legislation and voluntary stepping up life cycle greening by themanufacturers.

  IX. EXTENDED PRODUCER RESPONSIBILITY(EPR) Before they can sellnew equipment, the producers must take back old equipment for proper disposal.The cost of such “end-of- life” processing must be a part of the sale price,not listed as a separate fee. This gives manufacturers an economic incentive todevise the most efficient methods of coping with the problems of old equipment.

Implementation of such measures would require the employment of large number ofpeople, and could potentially mean the expansion of a new economic sector indeveloping countries. The pace of technological change requires not onlyconstant upgrading of the chips in computers, but many of the other componentsas well. The new re-use technologies could provide a source of new jobs in developingcountries, and call on Civil Society to help by lobbying at the national leveland in international forums for recognition of the e-waste problem andpotential solutions. Unless the Indian Government comes up with legislationcompelling vendors to initiate a take back and recycle mechanism, the Indian ITdream could well end up in an ecological nightmare. IT advancement would, then,mean environmental disaster.   X. NEW INITIATIVESIt is desirable tomaximize reuse of equipment and economic development while minimizingenvironmental burdens and economic costs.

Multi-stakeholder aspects are alsoimportant; the issue is politically contentious, both within and betweennations. It is argued that, to the extent possible, effective research requirescollaboration between different regions and societal sectors, and debate onsolutions should be rigorous and take place in a neutral arena. Households,companies, and governmental organizations can encourage electronicsmanufacturers to design greener electronics by purchasing computers and otherelectronic goods with environmentally preferable attributes and by requestingtake back options at the time of purchase. The Organization forEconomic Cooperation and Development (OECD), which has issued guidelines forthe environmentally sound management of used and scrapped PCs, described theused computer as a new business with “somewhat informal origins. TheCentral Pollution Control Board of India has just constituted a national-levelworking group with representatives from regulatory agencies, state pollutioncontrol boards, ministry of Information Technology, industry associations, andexperts in e-waste, which has the task of developing guidelines for e-wasterecycling and formulating. Japan has mandated producer take-back of electricalappliances; this is now being extended to computers and other electronics. Asthe Japanese government requires companies to take back products containinglead, companies such as Sony, Panasonic, Hitachi, Sharp, NEC, and Toshiba areinvesting in lead-free technologies. Also in 1998, Taiwan started a take-backsystem for computers, televisions, and large home appliances that requiresretailers to accept used electronics, regardless of where they were sold.

XI. CONCLUSIONMost waste isinherently dangerous. It can degrade to produce leachate, which may contaminateground water, and create landfill gas, which is explosive.

In addition, becauseof the dangers associated with landfill sites, there are now very strictrequirements on the construction, operation and aftercare of such sites. Mostplanning authorities want a worked out quarry to be used for landscaping ratherthan a landfill site which no one wants in their „back yard?. Product designmust be employed to help to minimize not only the nature and amount of waste,but also to maximize end-of-life recycling. Manufacturers, retailers, users,and disposers should share responsibility for reducing the environmentalimpacts of products. Adopt product stewardship approach i.e. a product-centeredapproach should be adopted to preserve and protect environment.

  REFERENCES 1. Chiang, S.K. (2001). Asia: the growthengine for the world electronics industry over the next 20 years, Circuit WorldVol.27, No 4 2. A New Opportunityfor Waste Prevention, Reuse, and Recycling ,United States Solid Waste and EPA530-F-01006 Environmental Protection Emergency Response June 2001 Agency(5306W) 3.

Richards, B.(1997),”Environmental Management in Electronics Manufacturing”, GECMarconiMaterials Technology, Hirst Division, Borehamwood, England) Circuit WorldVolume 23 Number 4 pp. 16-21 4. Basu, I. (2006),”India, The E-Wasteland” http:/ /www.postchronicle.com/ news/technology/article _21219271.

shtml) on08/05/2006 5. MAIT Annual Report(2003), (http://www.e-waste.in/ weee_basics /weee_statistics/ 6.

Sachitanand N. N.(2003), ” The ugly face of IT” The Hindu, Monday, Jun 23, 7.

Kumar, S., Jacky J. and Mathewman:2005,”Software industry in fastest emerging market: Challenges and opportunities”International journal of Technology and management vol.29 no.314


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