ABSTRACTGlobaldairy industry continues to grow as the global demand for dairy productscontinues to increase as a result of increase in world population.Dairy industry provides employment to many people from farmers, distributors tothose working in milk processing industries and especially the youth. The Kenyadairy sector is a vibrant sector in the livestock industry and has continuouslygrown over the years. It is one of the largest in Africa and the leadingproducer in East Africa.
Dairy farming plays a major role in Sotiksub-county as the main source of food and income among the small holder dairyfarmers in the area. In entire sub-county the effects of poor infrastructureand its contribution to milk losses among these small holder dairy farmers werenot well understood hence the research study. The entire research study wasfocused on two specific objectives which was to analyze thecontribution of poor roads to the losses in milk incur by farmers in the ruralareas and to investigate the impact of absence of storage facilities especiallymilk coolers to losses in milk in the rural areas. The sourceof the data for the study was primary data collected from a sampled of eighty(80) dairy households’ farmers with the use of structured questionnaires. Todetermine the effect of poor infrastructure and its contribution to milk lossesin the area, descriptive analysis were used to analyze the data collected. Theresults analysis indicates that poor roads and lack or inadequate storage facilitiessuch as milk coolers have contributed to milk losses in the area. The studygave a number of recommendations for farmers and both national and county governmentto adopt in order to reduce the effects of poor infrastructure in the area amongsmallholder dairy farmers for example in order to expand and improve dairyproduction in the area roads and storage facilities should be improve, encouragingfarmers to form formalized social groups and organizations like cooperativessocieties for easier access to credit to construct milk coolers.
INTRODUCTIONLivestock production accounts for over 40% ofthe world’s agricultural gross domestic product according to (FAO 2009). Apartfrom playing a major role in contributing to food and income generation throughthe sale of its products; milk, meat and hides, livestock is also as valuableassets to farmer as they are store of wealth and collateral for financialcredit access. In general therefore livestock production remains as the maineconomic activity for majority of farmers in the area. Dairy production inKenya experiences a number of challenges which contribute to high costs ofproduction and low productivity (Muriukietal 2003). These challenges have ledto low profits returns level to the smallholder dairy farmers’ producers thusthe need for improvement of roads and storage facilities so as to reduce lossesthat farmers incur. In recognition of the importance of dairy farming in Kenya,Sotik sub-county region remains as one of the main categorized region in Kenyafor dairy production.
Majority of these smallholder farmers derives theirincomes from this dairy. More so this became more evident with failure of maizefarming production in the region due to the emergence of Maize lethal necrotic(MLD) disease which severely affected the maize in the region leaving theentire dairy sector as the main source of income in the region. Thus in orderto meet the already mention importance of the sector to these smallholder dairyfarmers in the region ,availability of better of better roads and storagefacilities is important to enable these majority of smallholder dairy farmerswho are more vulnerable to milk losses due to poor infrastructure to meetbetter returns on their milk produce. It is in light of this recognition thatthe entire dairy farming has proved to be a key livelihood strategy forsmallholder dairy farmers in the entire sub-county and especially the entirewhole country at large.
The importance of the sector has beenrecognize by the government of Kenya as seen in many development policies forexample the National Development Plan of 2002 to 2008.Economic RecoveryStrategy for Wealth and Employment Creation (ERSWEC) of 2003 to 2007. Governmentrecognition of the dairy sector and its support has led to the continuousgrowth of the dairy sector to become the most developed in the livestockindustry. Milk production in the country has grown from 3.2 billion liters in2003 to 5.2 billion liters in 2013(Kenya Dairy Board Annual Report, 2014).Various dairy technologies have been promoted by thegovernment of Kenya(GOK) and various development partners like InternationalFund For Agricultural Development (IFAD) and Swedish based agency; AgriculturalSector Development Support Programme(ASDSP). Despite of all these interventionschallenges in dairy production still persist among the smallholder dairyfarmers.
The Kenyan dairy sector comprises of an estimatedof600,000 smallholderdairy farms around the country, these farmer’s accounts for 56% of the totalmilk production country and 70% of the total milk marketed (Omore et al 1999). Dairy farming in Sotik-subcounty is not left out from these problems; they have continually faced manyproblems in marketing of their milk produce in their households, this hindersthem from improving their livelihood standards.RESEARCHPROBLEMThestudy is aim at addressing the challenges the dairy sector is facing in termsof poor infrastructure in the rural areas and its contribution to the lossesthat dairy farmers in rural areas incur.
lot of research has been carried out onthe challenges that causes spoilage in milk and this research is aim atimproving the solution that is already in place. Milk producing areas in Kenya have poor infrastructure in terms ofpoor roads and electricity and also the absence of storage facilities like milkcoolers and this become more severe during rainy season has during rainy seasonthe milk production is high due to availability of pastures and other animalfeeds like fodder. Milk production is high but roads in rural areas areimpassable and as a result the milk doesn’t reach the market since theprocessers cannot come to collect the milk and the middlemen also faces thesame challenge as their modes of transport cannot access the road. The farmersin rural areas do not have access tostorage facilities like milk coolers hence milk are not collected and they arenot stored in cool facilities and milk is a perishable product.
The farmers areleft with no option but to keep their product and either consume it or sell atthrow away prices to fellow villagers if the demand is there. This alwaysresults to losses to rural farmers in Sotiksub county. The government of Kenyahas been trying to improve roads in the country but rural roads in most partsof the country are in poor conditions. Improvement of infrastructure likeconstruction of roads in rural areas, supply of electricity, and constructionof milk coolers will help in overcoming the challenges smallholders of dairyproduction faces that causes them a lot of losses. OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCHToanalyse the effect of infrastructure to milk losses among smallholder dairyfarmers in Sotik sub-county.SPECIFICOBJECTIVESToanalyze the contribution of poor roads to the losses in milk incur by farmersin the rural areas.Toinvestigate the impact of absence of storage facilities especially milk coolersto losses in milk in the rural areas STUDY AREA.
Thestudy was carried out among smallholders’ dairy farmers in Sotik sub-county inBomet County, Kenya. The area is situated in the highlands hence it is suitablefor dairy production in the area. The area lies at analtitude ranging from 1500-2500m above the sea level. The area receives arainfall amount ranging from 1800mm-2200mm.Temperetures ranges from 18-22degrees Celsius.The study was conducted amongsmall-scale dairy farmers in the area. MATERIALS AND METHODSDATATYPES AND SORCESThestudy uses primary data.
Primary data was collected by use of structuredquestionnaires and interviews to the smallholder dairy farmers. Thequestionnaires were administered to these smallholder dairy farmers. This wasfor the purpose of better analysis and accurate information.The survey wasstructured to capture the type of roads in the area and the storage facilitiesand their importance and its effects to milk losses.
Data collected includedwhether milk is the main source of income to the farmers. Descriptivestatistics were used to analyze the data.DATACOLLECTION METHODThestudy used primary data collected through personal interviews with the use of astructured questionnaire. Questionnaires were administered so as to enable theresearcher to get in-depth information from the respondents regarding. A totalof 80 respondents were sampled randomly to generate data.DATAANALYSISTo determine the effect of poorinfrastructure in the area to milk losses descriptive statistics were used toanalyse the data with thehelp of Statistical package for social sciences analysis (SPSS) were used. RESULTS.
AGEOF THE REPONDENT AGE IN YEARS PERCENTAGE OF FARMERS Below 18 3.8% 19-35 32.5% 36-50 38.
8% 51 and above 25.0% EDUCATION EDUCATION LEVEL PERCENTAGE OF FARMERS Primary 40.0% Secondary 32.5% College 16.
3% University 11.0% DOYOU SELL YOUR MILK Do you sell your milk Percentage of farmers Yes 96.3% No 3.7% BUYERSOF MILK Who buys your milk Percentage of farmers Processers 52.
5% Milk vendors 26.3% Local consumers 6.3% Schools 3.8% Hotels 7.
5% ISDAIRY PRODUCTION MAIN SOURCE OF INCOME Dairy production main source of income Percentage of farmers Yes 57.5% No 42.5% POORINFRASTRUCTURE AFFECTS MILK DISTRIBUTION Poor infrastructure affects milk distribution Percentage of farmers Yes 90.0% No 10.0% EXPERIENCEMILK LOSSES Have you experience milk losses Percentage of farmers Yes 81.0% No 19.0% FREQUENCYOF MILK LOSSES How often do you experience milk losses Percentage of farmers Weekly 10.0% At least in a month 61.
3% Any other 7.5% MAINCAUSES OF MILK LOSSES IN THE AREA Causes Percentage of farmers Poor transportation 50.0% Lack of buyers 2.5% Lack of storage facilities 30.0% Home misuse 12.
5% TYPEOF ROAD NETWORK IN THE AREAMurram100%CONDITIONOF THE ROADS IN THE AREA State of the roads Percentage of farmers Very good 3.8% Good 13.8% Poor 57.
5% Very poor 25.0% PRESENCEOF MILK PRESERVATION FACILITIES Presence of milk coolers Percentage of farmers Yes 30.0% No 70.0% NEEDFOR MILK PRESERVATION FACILITIES There is need of milk coolers Percentage of farmers Yes 88.
8% No 8.8% AVERAGEINCOME FROM MILK PER MONTH Income per month (in ksh) Percentage of farmers Below 2000 2.5% 2001-5000 18.8% 5001-10000 21.3% 10001 and above 53.
8% DISCUSSIONTheresults shows that majority of the respondents were between the age of 36-50years.It also shows that majority of respondents only attended primary schoolstanding at 40%. Majority of the milk produce in the area are for sale whichstands at 96.3% and this shows why most of the respondents indicated that dairyproduction is there main source of income in the area which stands at 57.5%.The leading buyer of milk from smallholder dairy farmers in the area is milkprocessing companies 52.
5%, followed by milk vendors which contribute 26.3% ofthe milk buyers. Majority of the milk farmers in the area said that poorinfrastructure in the area contributes to milk losses which stands at 90% ofthe total respondents. This shows that farmers have incur a lot of losses interms of their income and produce as a result of poor infrastructure in thearea.Ahuge number of smallholder dairy farmers (81.
0%) indicated that they haveexperience losses on their milk produce before they reach the buyers. Thefrequency of milk losses in the area shows that majority of the farmersexperience milk losers at least every month. The main causes of milk losses inthe area are poor transportation 50.0% and lack of storage facilities 30.0%. ROADSThemain mode of transport in the area is by roads either by use of motorcycles,pickups or Lorries in fact it is the only mode of transport in the area. Theresults show that the roads in the area are murram. Roads in the rural areasare unpassable during the rainy season and thus prevent collection of milk fromthe farmers.
This contribute to farmers losing their milk and hence the incomefrom dairy production. The results show that poor transportation contributes50% of milk losses in the area. Most of the roads in the sub-county are in poorconditions which stand at 57.
5%. Poor conditions of the roads make transport ofmilk difficult and expensive to the buyers.STORAGEFACILITIESThemain storage facilities that we were looking at here are milk coolers thatexist in the area and whether there is need for milk coolers so as to reducemilk losses among smallholder dairy farmers in Sotik sub-county. Lack ofstorage facilities contributes 30% to the total milk losses in the area.
Thisshows that lack of milk coolers is one of the major factors that contribute tobig losses that the farmers in the area incur. The results show that 70% of therespondents indicated that there ara no storage facilities in the area. Thisexplains why lack of storage facilities is one of the main contributors to milklosses in the area High percentage of the respondents 88.8% said that there isneed of milk preservation facilities in the area for it to curb milk losses andincreases the shell life of milk and hence will increase income for thefarmers. CONCLUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONSTheresearch study was about determination of the effects of poor infrastructure tomilk losses among smallholder dairy farmers in Sotik sub-county. The specificobjectives were effects of poor roads and its contribution to milk losses andthe other specific objectives were lack of storage facilities and its impacts.We used descriptive statistics to analyse our data.
Poor infrastructurecontributes to milk losses in the rural areas. Poor roads and lack of storagefacilities have contributed to milk losses among smallholder dairy farmers inSotik sub-county.In orderto expand and improve dairy farming in sotik sub-county there is need for bothnational and county governments to improve roads and install milk coolerswithin the area.Farmersshould be encouraged to further their educational level.This will broaden theirthinking and decision making skills and hence make better judgement.Farmersshould be encouraged to form and join cooperatives societies where they areable to access credit and establish their own storage facilities.Encouragingfarmers to engage in other income generating activities so as to supplementtheir income from dairy farming.
REFERENCES Hooton, N.H. (2004) The Smallholder Dairy Project: Experiences in dairy policy influencing in Kenya.· Njagi Elizabeth Wangui (2013)Factors affecting thedistribution of dairy products: a case of Githunguri Dairy Farmers Cooperative Society Limited.
http://ir-library.ku.ac.ke/handle/123456789/6171· Henk A.J.
, Moll, Steven J. Staal, M.N.M.Ibrahim, (2007) Smallholder dairy production and markets: A comparison ofproduction systems in Zambia, Kenya and Sri Lanka, Agricultural Systems 94:593–603.· Patrice Gautier (2008), SmallholderDairy in Vietnam, Study and Presentation on behalf of FAO within theproject “Improved Market Access and Smallholder dairy farmer Participation forSustainable Dairy Development” (CFC/FIGMDP/16FT)