Abstract—In devices, networks and environments are going to

Abstract—In recent years, there has been a plenty ofparadigm shifts occurring in the way people across the world could connect andcollaborate. Nowadays, wireless connectivity is almost everywhere and gettinghighly affordable even for people who arein the bottom of the pyramid. Howeverwireless connection is liable for several changes and challenges and thereforeis far more complex to implement and sustain than a wired system. Now, with thecool arrival of third and fourth generation communication technologies, theinhibiting trends such as unpredictability, signal fading, latency, jitteretc., are gradually disappearing for the good. The fourth generation (4G)wireless networks are all set to turn the current networks into end-to-end IPnetworks.

With the massive adoption of IPv6, every single device in the worldwill have a unique IP address thereby IPbased devices, networks andenvironments are going to shine in the days to unfurl. This significanttransition enables everything tangible in our midst to join into the ragingInternet bandwagon in order to be remotely monitored, managed and manipulated.If 4G is implemented correctly and comprehensively, it will truly andtantalizingly harmonize global roaming, high-speed connectivity, andtransparent end-user performance on every mobile device in the world.

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4G is setto deliver 100mbps to a roaming mobile device globally and up to 1gbps to astationary device. This allows video conferencing, streaming picture-perfect videoand much more. The maturity and stability of 4G technologies therefore breedsinnovation at faster pace and hence possibilities for novel and people-centricservices are huge. In this paper, we have highlighted the following criticalissues for the leading wireless broadband standards such as WiMAX, Mobile WiMAXand 3GPP-LTE. Index Terms— WiMAX, 802.

16e, 3GPP-LTE, SWOTI.    INTRODUCTION W ireless connectivity is increasingly pervasive and persuasive forenabling the true mobility. Anywhere anytime communication, computation andcollaboration are the new norm being prescribed for every individual to beextremely productive. Competent and compact wireless technologies have emergedand evolved in order to fulfill the soaring expectations of businesses as wellas end-users. Currently third-generation (3G) communication technologies are onthe widespread usage across the continents, countries and counties and cities.WiMAX (both fixed and mobile) versions are being pampered and promotedvigorously by standard bodies, government agencies and mobile service providersas the best option for providing affordable and last-mile connectivity. Next-Generation Communication Standard –Equipment manufacturers, product vendors, and researchers have alreadyplunged into experimenting and espousing next-generation (4G)technologies. In a nutshell, accessing and availing information and Internetservices anywhere, anytime, any device, any channel, and any media are becomingso commonand casual these days with the maturity of wireless communicationstandards, infrastructures, and handy devices.

Handheld terminals are undergoing real transformations inaccommodating multiple functions through integration and miniaturization ofhardware modules. The Internet is stuffed with a number of professional andpersonal services that couldbe accessed using any kind of portable, wearable, nomadic andwireless devices. Especially for video and other rich services, weneed true broadband technologies.

There is a silent yet strategic convergencehappening in the mobile space. That is, video, voice and data are gettingsmoothly merged to be transmitted through a single channel without much latencyandviewed in a single device with all clarity. Such kinds of realtimeand seamless synchronization can be made possible with 4G technologies. Videoon demand, global roaming, trueinteroperability among personal communication and assistivedevices being produced by different makers are being demanded bypeople, who are on the know-how.                Therefore thefuture 4G infrastructures will consist of a set of various networks using IP(Internet protocol) as a common protocol so that users are in control becausethey will be ableto choose every application and environment. The design is that 4Gwill be based on OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing), which isthe key enabler of 4G technology. Other technological aspects of 4G areadaptive processing and smart antennas, both of which will be used in3G networks and enhance rates when used in with OFDM.

Currently 3Gnetworks still send there data digitally over a single channel, OFDM isdesigned to send data over hundredsof parallel streams, thus increasing the amount of informationthat can be sent at a time over traditional CDMA networks. The 4Gdata rates will vary depending on the number of channels that are available,and can be used and technologies like adaptive processing, which detectsinterference on a channel and improves reception by actively switching channelsto avoid interference. 4G networks will also use smart antenna technology,which is used to aim the radio signal in the direction of the receiver in theterminal from the base station. When teamed up with adaptive techniques, multipleantennas can cancel out more interference while enhancing the signal. The 4Gplans are still years away, but transitioning from 3G to 4G should be seamlessfor customers because 4G will have evolved from 3G.

Users won’t even have toget new phones. Digital applications are getting more common lately and arecreating an increasing demand for broadband communication systems. Thetechnical requirements for related products are very high but solutions must becheap to implement since we are essentially talking about consumer products.For Satellite and for Cable; such cost-efficient solutions are already aboutfor the terrestrial link (i.

e. original TV broadcasting) the requirements areso high that the ‘standard’ solutions are no longer an option. OrthogonalFrequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a technology that allows transmittingvery high data rates over channels at a comparable low complexity.

OrthogonalFrequency Division Multiplexing is the choice of the transmission method forthe European digital radio (DAB) and Digital TV (DVB-T) standard. Owing to itsgreat benefit’s OFDM is being considered for future broadband application suchas wireless ATM as well.II.    History of Mobile TelephoneTechnologyAt the end of the 1940’s, the first radio telephone service wasintroduced, and designed to users in cars to the public landlinebased telephone network. Then, in the 1960 a system launched by BellSystems, called IMTS, or, “Improved Mobile Telephone Service”, broughtquite a few improvements such as direct dialing and more bandwidth. The veryfirst analog systems were based upon IMTS and were created in the late 60s andearly 70s.

The systems were called “cellular” becauselarge coverage areas were split into smaller areas or”cells”, each cell is served by a low power transmitter and receiver. 1G: 1G is first-generation wirelesstelephone technology. Thisgeneration of phones and networks is represented by the bricksizedanalog phones introduced in the 1980’s. Subsequentnumbers refer to newer and upcoming technology. 2G: 2G phones use digital networks.Going all-digital allowedfor the introduction of digital data services, such as SMS andemail. 2G networks and their digital nature also made it moredifficult to eavesdrop on mobile phone calls. 3G: 3G networks are an in betweenstandard.

3G is seen moreas pre4G instead of a standard of its own. The advantage 3Gnetworks have over 2G networks is speed. 3G networks are built tohandle the needs of today’s wireless users.

This standard of wireless networksincreases the speed of internet browsing, picture and video messaging, andhandheld GPS use. 4G: 4G (AKA Beyond 3G) is like the othergenerations in thatits advantage lies in promised increased speeds in datatransmission. There is currently no formal definition for 4G, but there areobjectives. One of these objectives is for 4G to become a fully IP-basedsystem, much like modern computer networks. The supposed speeds for 4G will bebetween 100 Mbit/s and 1 Gbit/s.

 TABLE IHistory of Mobile Telephone Technologies The Figure below shows the wireless technology evolution path forWiMAX and LTE toward to ITU defined Advance 4GStands.  Figure 1: Evolution of Mobile Wireless TechnologiesIII.    Mobile WIMAXThe Mobile WiMAX (802.16e) standard can provide tens of megabits persecond of capacity per channel from each base station (BS) with a baselineconfiguration.

Many pathbreakingfeatures such as adaptive antennas, which can significantly improvethe performance, are being embedded into WiMAX products. The high datathroughput enables efficient data multiplexing and low data latency to delivera host of people-centric services such as audio / video / web streaming, andwireless VoIP with high quality of service (QoS). Ultimately the pervasiveInternet will become practical with the arrival of standards-compliant mobileWiMAX solutions.

The scalable architecture, high data throughput and low costdeployment make the mobile WiMAX standard an exciting solution for anastounding array of nimbler services. Hundreds of companies have contributed tothe development of this technology and many firms have announced detailedproduct plans for this technology. This is an encouraging sign towardsproviding the always-on mobile Internet at very low subscription cost. The broadindustry participation will ensure economies of scale that will help drive downthe costs of subscription and enable the deployment of mobile internet servicesglobally. Mobile WiMAX (figure 2) is a broadband wireless solution thatenables convergence of mobile and fixed broadband networks through a commonwide-area broadband radio access technology and flexible network architecture.The mobile WiMAX Air Interface adopts Orthogonal Frequency Division MultipleAccess (OFDMA) for improved multi-path performance in non-line-of-sight (NLOS)environments. Scalable OFDMA (SOFDMA) is introduced in the IEEE 802.

16e tosupport scalable channel bandwidths from 1.25 to20 MHz. There are a number of budding and blooming technologies,best-of-breed implementations, and other trendsetters in this happening field.This is a welcome indication for the dreamt ubiquitous computing world. Figure 2 : Mobile WIMAX (802.16e) IV.

    3GPP-LTEThe growing commercialization of Global System for MobileCommunications (GSM) and its evolution such as UniversalMobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) with High Speed PacketAccess (HSPA) have been the focus topic of 3GPP. The GSM / UMTS system isperhaps the most successful communications technology family and its evolutionto beyond 3G becomes important issue for the nextglobal mobile-broadband solution. In parallel to evolving HSPA, 3GPPis also specifying a new radio access technologyin Release 8 known as LTE in order to ensure the competitiveness ofUMTS. LTE focuses to support the new Packet Switched (PS) capabilitiesprovided by the LTE radio interfaces and targetsmore complex spectrum situations with fewer restrictions onbackwards compatibility. Main targets and requirements for thedesign of LTE system have been captured in and can be summarized as follows. Data Rate: Peak downlink rates of 100Mbps and Uplink rates up to 50 Mbps for 20 MHz spectrum allocation, assuming 2receive antennas and 1 transmit antenna at the terminal  Spectrum: Operation in both paired(Frequency Division Duplex / FDD mode) and unpaired spectrum (Time DivisionDuplex / TDD mode). Enabling deployment in many differentspectrum allocations with scalable bandwidth of 5, 10, 15, 20MHz, and better efficiency (downlink target is 3-4 times betterthan release 6 and uplink target is 2-3 times better) Throughput: Mean user throughput per MHzis 3-4 times (downlink) and 2-3 times (uplink) better than release 6. Cell-edgeuser throughput is also expected to be improved by a factor 2 for uplink anddownlink Latency: Significantly reducedcontrol-plane and user-plane requirements, i.

e. less than 5ms in thetransmission of an IP packet (user-plane), allow fast transition times of lessthan 100ms from camped state to active state (controlplane)  Costs: Reduced CAPEX and OPEX includingbackhaul for both operators and users, and effective migration from previousrelease shall be possible. One of LTE requirement, as previously described, is to reducethe costs by simplifying the radio architecture. Therefore thenumber of nodes and interfaces in the network shall bereduced and it means that the 3GPP LTE Radio AccessNetwork architecture need to group user plane functionalitiesinto one network node called evolved Node B (eNB). Theresulting radio architecture is commonly known as SystemArchitecture Evolution (SAE) and is depicted on Figure 3below.Figure 3 : Expanding Range Using IntermediateDevice  V.

    Model for Proposed SolutionThis paper tries to expand the range of Bluetooth data transfer byinvolving intermediate devices between the sender and receiver. A message fromthe source goes to one or more intermediate device finally ends up atdestination. This is typically considers as a client server architecture. Thedevice which sends the data is the client and receives the data is the server.The client node expands its network by searching for the Bluetooth enableddevice in its range. All devices continue this searching for devices within therange until the destination is reached. A model of the proposed system is inthe figure 4.

 Figure 4 : Model for Proposed Solution This network consists of devices of smaller speed and relativelysmaller network. The routing algorithm I have chosen is distance vector routingalgorithm. The operation of the algorithm is as follows. When a node starts itcan directly access its immediate neighbors. Each node creates a list of nodesthat can be accessible. Each node, on a regular basis, sends to each neighborits own current idea of the total cost to get to all the destinations it knowsof. Cost is determined by the number of nodes in the path. The neighboringnodes examine this information and update their routing table accordingly.

Overtime, all the nodes in the network will discover the best next hop for alldestinations, and the best total cost. A node wants to send message to another node in thenetwork first it check whether this node is in the range of the sender. If sothen it can directly send message. Otherwise it will set a path to the destinationthrough the intermediate devices. Each device sends their accessible device toits neighbors so the sender can calculate the shortest path to the destination.Once the routing path is finalized then sender node can access the destination.Each intermediate node in the path is involved in the routing process and eachwill be aware of the data transmission.

In any Bluetooth data transfer the nodes are not fixedso any node can move from the network and new node can come up at any time. Ifany node is added to the network then it finds itsImmediate neighbors and prepares its routing table. And this routingtable is send to all nodes that can be directly accessible. If any node wishesto move out of the network then it send a withdraw message to their immediatenodes. In both cases all nodes update their routing table accordingly.

If anynode updates its routing table then inform their neighbors and send the routingtable to them. When a node send a packet to another node in the network if itreaches correctly at the destination then it will send the acknowledgement. Ifthe sender does not get the acknowledgement before the timer turned off thenthe route discovery process is repeated. Sender must send the same packet throughanother shortest route if the current route does not exist. The path selectionis crucial and is to be selected depends on the shortest path criteria and loadbalancing criteria. VI.

    Applications of ProposedSolutionWith the development of Bluetooth technology, many Bluetooth devicescome into our living, such as Bluetooth earphone, Bluetooth home-network etc.Recently, the Bluetooth technology is the fastest growing technology whichenables devices to connect and communicate. Data dissemination is the mainapplication intended to the Bluetooth network. We can send text messages aswell as picture messages to any Bluetooth enabled devices via Bluetooth communication.Bluetooth is actually the replacement of traditional wired serial communicationin test equipment, GPS receivers and medical equipment. The popular use ofBluetooth technology is wireless control and communication between any deviceswith Bluetooth capability. The devices can be cell phone, mouse, keyboard,cordless headset, camera, PDA, printer, computer etc. Bluetooth can also helpdifferent devices to communicate with each other.

For example, if you have aphone, a PDA, and a computer and all the three devices have Bluetoothcapabilities, then with the support of appropriate software on each device youcan look up a phone number on your PDA and then place a call direct from the laptopor PDA without touching your cell phone. Ad hoc networking and remote controlare the significant applications. Another attractive application is wirelessnetworking between  PCs in a confinedspace where little bandwidth is required. By using Bluetooth communicationtechnology transfer of files between devices via OBEX is possible. VII.    ConclusionIn this paper, I have listed out the common shortcomings ofBluetooth data transmission. Efficiency of connection establishment has been analyzedand suggested a method to overcome the basic limitation of Bluetoothcommunication that is the range constraint.

With this new network, the range ofthe devices that can be accessible is expanded. This expansion is done throughthe enabled intermediate devices. When a device tries to connect to otherdevices, first it finds the devices that can be accessed directly orindirectly. Then it can establish a path to the destination through theintermediate devices and forward the message.  References1 Alessi, S.

M.,and Trollip, S R(2001), Multimedia for learning. A pearson EducationCompany  2 AndrewS.Tanenbaum ,Computer Networks (Fourth Edition):, Pearson Education,Asia/ PHI  3 Callaghan, J.(2002), “Inside Intranets & Extranets: Knowledge ManagementAND the Struggle for Power”, Palgrave Macmillan 4 David AlexLamb; Electronic Mail: The Basics, 1999.

 5 Haartsen, “TheBluetooth radio system”, IEEE Personal Communications Magazine,vol.7, no.1, pp.28-36, 2009 6 Matt, MarcSimon and Ilker, An introduction to open source software-A 7 Pelgrum,W.

J :2011, The Educational Potential of New Information Technologies 8 Unwin, Tim(2009). ICT4D: Information and Communication Technology forDevelopment, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521712361

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