Abstract held media responsible for transmitting such messages.

 Abstract Advertising and genderportrayal in adverts has been a thoroughly researched and a widely debatedissue throughout the world. A qualitative study was directed to examine howmedia and local ads have an effect on the youth group living in Karachi,Pakistan.

Prior research indicates that messages in local advertisements unfairwhen it comes to are gender. They are highly stereotypical with the roles theyestablish. Snowball sampling method was used to interview a total of 6 people,3 of them being males and 3 females. The interviews were recorded; written downand thematic analysis was concluded. Results indicated that media is undeniablygender biased, displays violence, sexual behavior and also defines the roles ofmen and women in a society. The data revealed that both male and femalerespondents think in the same lines about the impact these advertisements haveon the youth and they held media responsible for transmitting such messages.Hence, an implementation of strict policies by Pakistani government and PEMRAis proposed along with the role of civil society organizations in mass levelawareness programs. Future research can entail how culture, societal norms, religionand educational institutes play a role in gender socialization.

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IntroductionMen are from Mars andWomen are from Venus. The notion established by various writers, directors, physiologistsand advertisers that men and women are different and have different roles inorder to provide persuasive imagery and to develop a strong story. As humanbeings we tend to classify other people into groups and most of the times thisclassification is done on the foundation of gender as it is the most prominentthing to the eyes when we interact with someone.

As humans we also have atendency to generalize and consider all men being alike and all women beingsimilar, while considering both the genders extremely distinct from oneanother. Not only market segmentation is done on the basis of gender but it isused as an advertising strategy to generate sales and advertise products. Thisis why gender studies, gender roles and behavior play a significant rolecommunication and marketing strategies. Men and women are depicted in extremelystereotypical roles in advertisements throughout the globe. There has been distress since the beginning of popular media with how peopleare represented in the media, especially on how people from different ages,gender, ethnic and professional groups are shown in conceivably stereotypicalroles or are underrepresented (Bollinger, 2008; Hazell & Clarke, 2007;Nina-Pazarzi & Tsangaris, 2008). The portrayal of men and women intelevision adverts and commercials have grabbed the most attention ofresearchers (Kaufman, 1999).

Jackson Katz in his book Advertising and the Construction of ViolentWhite Masculinity crafts a variation between masculinity and masculinities,establishing that there are various dissimilarities existing with the dominantform being heterosexual, white and from the middle class. Males are usually thegender that demonstrate violent behavior within the patriarchal societies. Thebasic contributor to this representation of the behavior is the movie industry,as their ‘hero’ or male leading icons tend to establish this by taking on the dominantform of masculinity.  According to Katz,the concept of violent masculinity started during the 1970s, as men wanted tohave a certain level of control over the situations happening around them, theyhad to deal with the economic fluctuation, the women’s movement. Strength andviolence were the tools that men of that time began to use in order to attainthe manhood.

The notion that violence equals masculinity is strongly connectedto advertising in a lot of ways. The justification for the violence in men isthe theory that violence is biologically inherited in men. Many advertisers usemasculine violence in military and sports ads, as it is believed that the mendefending the country are masculine and the sports men are the winners who representedas manly.

Our society itself supports this ideal form of masculinity. All themale models used in the ads have huge muscles, as it equals masculinity and inturn, aggression. These ads feed the idea that men need to continually strugglein order to enhance their being using their brand, associating t with theheroic masculinity which includes violence. Therefore, in order to be the heroin real life, men subconsciously adapt the violent role in real life as that’s whatthey are being fed constantly by the media. They make various propositions in whichthey sell ideas to be the perfect man, like success can be achieved, be itgetting the girl or winning the race or a fight. Some action can be takenagainst these advertisements if we are observant and aware about the affectthey have on the males in a society and how it negatively affects theirlifestyle.

Similarly, the idea that howone should behave in a particular way according to their gender is engraved inthe minds by the time the a baby is born, girls are given cooking toys andstuffed teddy bears and are mostly dressed in pink colored dresses. Whereasboys are directed towards violence as they are given toy guns to play with andare dressed in blue or other ‘manly’ colors. This research paper establishesthat traditional societies also tend to shape the minds of females as to howthey are supposed to behave. Women are taught to stay indoors and look afterthe family’s needs, whereas men are to go outside and be the breadwinners ofthe family. This phenomenon is engraved in our traditional societies even ifthey tend to grow postmodern, this concept remains.  Objectives1.     To measure the variances in male andfemale’s thoughts regarding the influence of media and advertisements. 2.

     To understand how media establishes genderroles through the advertisements. 3.     To envision the diverse messages towardsboth the genders in the mainstream media. 4.     To identify media’s role as a norm setter/breaker.  Research MethodologyAccording to this topic,this paper has been articulated to measurethe views of both males and female students studying at SZABIST, KarachiCampus, between the ages of 18 to 25 years. Literature review is written on theinformation based on published research journals, articles, news items andother scholarly reports.

The primary research has been conducted through focusgroups and interviews. There were 3 male students and 3 female students who participatedin the focused group after giving voluntary consent and the interviews/focusgroups were then transcribed, translated, coded and a thematic analysis wascarried out based on their responses. Complete confidentiality was sustained inorder to attain an un-biased methodology.  Literature Review One cannot disagree tothe fact that Media has a considerable impact on the life of countless peoplethroughout the globe. As Kellner (2008) establishes the fact that our moralitiesand values that differentiate between the right and wrong are strongly swayedby the media.

Especially in today’s era when we are surrounded with so muchmedia and consume it on a regular basis, it is something that should be assessedcarefully. One of the foremost representativesthat stereotype the ways in which both the genders are distinguished is media(Wood, 1993). The portrayal of women can be classified broadly in two genres,they are to be represented in traditional roles as mothers and familycaretakers or they are to be represented in an objectifying and sexual manner. Assuggested by Feldman & Brown (1984)and Woodman (1991), various channels like MTV are a proof that women are presentedas if they existed to please men, fulfil their desires and meet theirfantasies.

Men today on our television screens are represented as adventurousand aggressive with their extreme dominant masculinity, while women areportrayed as obedient, voiceless submissive wives or daughters (Wood, 1994).According to Brown & Cambell (1986) men are hardly ever seen occupied inhousehold chores and are never given the nurturing roles like woman (Doyle,1989). Whereas women according to Davis (1990) are usually sexualized and are highlyphoto-shopped in order to portray the extraordinary perfect woman. The GenderSchema theory suggests that absorb and learn from their surroundings how theyare supposed to behave, their culture tells them how to behave appropriately,for instance, girls are supposed to look pretty, be submissive and play indoorswith dolls (Carter, D.B & McCloskey, 1983-1984).

While boys are to indulgein outdoor games and be adventurous. With such a thought, advertisements sendindirect messages to its viewers in order to reinforce the ideas in the mindsof the consumer (Pareles, 1990; Texier, 1990). 


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