Abstract great increment of the user subscribers to


The growing adoption of smart mobile devices, such as
smartphones and tablets, is fundamentally changing the way how business is
conducted. New mobile technologies exert a significant influence on
individuals, organizations, and society at large. Mobile computing is made
possible by portable computer hardware, software, and communications systems
that interact with a non-mobile organizational information system while away
from the normal, fixed workplace. The devices such as smart phone which are
capable of web browsing, e-mail access, video playback, document editing, file transfer,
image editing and many other tasks common on smartphones.



Mobile computing started in the 1970s and 1980s when a man
designed a portable computer for children. Computers have only become smaller
and faster. The mobile communication device
strategies have moved well beyond the pagers and smartphones; and now include
wireless networks, iPhones, cell phones, iPads, laptops, tablets, and medical
sensors that all communicate instantaneous and continuous information. (By Mary
Alice Annecharico). Mobile Computing defines that a device which permits the
flow of transmission of data from one computer to another by never been
connected to the Physical link layers. Mobile voice communications which is in
demands all over the world is having a great increment of the user subscribers
to many networks protocols from last two to three years. This concept is
normally called as the Principle of the mobile computing. This has become very
interesting in the growth of the technology which allows the users to transmit
the information details of data. The emergence of smartphones and
tablets that are able to run adapted desktop operating systems, put the world’s
information at their owners’ fingertips, and interact with them through speech
is changing the ways in which individuals act in organizations, their private
daily lives, and society at large. Mobile
devices have become commonplace in health care settings, leading to rapid
growth in the development of medical software applications (apps) for these





Mobility has become a very popular word and rapidly
increasing part in today’s computing area. An incredible growth has appeared in
the development of mobile devices such as, smartphone, PDA, GPS Navigation and
laptops with a variety of mobile computing, networking and security
technologies. Mobile computing is based on a collection of three major
concepts: hardware, software and communication. The concepts of hardware can be
considered as mobile devices, such as smartphone and laptop, or their mobile
components. Software of mobile computing is the numerous mobile applications in
the devices, such as the mobile browser, anti-virus software and games. The
communication issue includes the infrastructure of mobile networks, protocols
and data delivery in their use. Smartphones and
tablets combine both computing and communication features in a single device
that can be held in a hand or stored in a pocket, allowing easy access and use
at the point of care. In addition to voice and text, new mobile device models
offer more advanced features, such as web searching, global positioning systems
(GPS), high-quality cameras, and sound recorders. With these features, as
well as powerful processers and operating systems, large memories, and
high-resolution screens, mobile devices have essentially become handheld
computers. Businesses can use mobile computing to help customers solve
technical issues, another great benefit. For
examples, customers call into the technical support department of the
software company regarding a technical issue they are having. If the issue is
something that can be solved easily over the phone, the remote access software
is not needed. But when the issue is more serious, and as long as the customer has
access to the internet, the technical support worker can securely access the
customers’ computer. While the technical support worker is on the customers’
computer, the customer can watch and learn what the technical support worker is
doing. If the customer just wants the problem fixed, they have no obligation to
be present at their computer while the technical support worker is fixing the



 Mobile computing gadgets like
Smartphones and Tablet Computers.

The biggest benefits of using Smartphones and Tablet
computers include being able to access business information from any location,
improved communications, access to business applications, and access to
suppliers and partners from anywhere. Improvements in access to business
information from any location. Improvements in communications from any
location. Access to business applications from any location. Access to
suppliers/partners from any location. Other benefits cited by best performers
include the ability to improve customer sales and service from any location,
and the ability to reduce capital expenses. The least likely benefits of using
Smartphones and Tablet computers include: the ability to reduce operating
expenses, and increases in flexibility, adaptability and flexibility. (Source:
IT Policy Compliance Group, 2011). It
makes users life easy and even many other enterprise like hotel industry,
health care industry and many more take the advantages of a mobile computing.
Even nowadays healthcare industry uses the wireless devices to make their work
easier and to save their patient life and provide them better treatment. Mobile devices are helping to fill current gaps to
enhance the physician workflow, proactive decision-making, and oversight with a
goal of improving patient care quality, outcomes, and safety (said by Mary
Alice Annecharico). Mobile technology has had a massive impact on business.
When it comes to setting up a small or medium business, or even venturing out
as a freelancer, there are devices that can help make your life easier.


Smartphones have become the Swiss Army knife of technology,
having replaced multiple devices. In the past, businesses didn’t allow you to
bring your phone to the office, however now; your phone has the potential to be
your most vital tool. Essentially this allows you to use your Windows Mobile
smartphone as your primary computer no matter where you are. Simply connect it
to a larger display and use Windows 10 as you would on any other device. Google
Docs can be accessed from any device that has an internet connection and saves
all your work on the Cloud in real time, making it easier to complete that last
minute task no matter where you are or which device is with you.


Tablet aim to take the tablet beyond a media consumption
device and turn it into a workhorse.

If you’re a creative who specializes in drawing and design,
then the iPad Pro is a great option to consider. It has the added benefit of
Apple’s full app ecosystem which means that you have full access to all of your
work and information stored on iCloud as well as arguably more productivity
apps than any other mobile OS platform. Microsoft’s Surface tablet is the
company’s answer to powerful mobile computing. The device has been so well
received that many professionals have felt comfortable using the Surface as
their primary computing device.

Thanks to its full integration into Microsoft’s extensive
business oriented applications as well as a sturdy design and good battery
life, the Surface is a fantastic option if you need to do presentations and
stay connected while on the go.



Cloud storage and computing is your friend. Many large
companies have the finances to purchase their own servers and computers,
arguably giving them far more computing capabilities than any small business
could ever hope to achieve. Cloud computing and cloud storage bring you the
processing power of large companies, such as Amazon Web Services, without the
need to purchase expensive equipment. You are also able to scale up or down
with many cloud service providers which means that you don’t have to worry
about hindering the growth of your business.



Mobile application is vastly used in this time for
various tasks such as shopping, marketing, payment etc. Mobile Computing is
used for ease of access without having to be connected with a fixed physical
link. E-Business provide online platform for enterprises and customers to
perform transactions. In globalization era, combination of mobile computing,
cloud computing and business intelligence creates new opportunities in market
and improves business effectiveness. Mobile Cloud Computing provides benefits
such as reduction of costs of information technology and requirement of
infrastructure to support the business operation. This has helped large
enterprises to decrease the burden offered by usual information technology
services and small and medium enterprises to provide prospective and customized
approaches. (Source: IT Policy Compliance Group, 2011).

Applications of Mobile Computing

Mobile working infrastructure can deliver real time business
benefits, companies of all sizes are walking up to the fact that they can
improve productivity and increase profits by giving employees remote access to
mission critical corporate IT system. The importance of Mobile Computers has
been highlighted in many fields of which a few are described below:

§  For Estate Agents: – Estate agents can work either at home or out in the field. With
mobile computers they can be more productive. They can obtain current real
estate information by accessing multiple listing services, which they can do
from home, office or car when out with clients. They can provide clients with
immediate feedback regarding specific homes or neighborhoods, and with faster
loan approvals, since applications can be submitted on the spot. Therefore,
mobile computers allow them to devote more time to clients.

§  Emergency Services: – Ability to receive information on the move is vital where the
emergency services are involved. Information regarding the address, type and
other details of an incident can be dispatched quickly, via a Cellular Digital
Packet Data (CDPD) system using mobile computers, to one or several appropriate
mobile units, which are in the vicinity of the incident.

§  In courts:
– Defense counsels can take mobile computers in court. When the opposing
counsel references a case which they are not familiar, they can use the
computer to get direct, real-time access to on-line legal database services,
where they can gather information on the case and related precedents. Therefore
mobile computers allow immediate access to a wealth of information, making
people better informed and prepared.

§  In companies:
– Managers can use mobile computers in, say, and critical presentations to
major customers. They can access the latest market share information. At a
small recess, they can revise the presentation to take advantage of this
information. They can communicate with the office about possible new offers and
call meetings for discussing responds to the new proposals. Therefore, mobile
computers can leverage competitive advantages.

§  Credit Card Verification: – At Point of Sale (POS) terminals in shops and supermarkets,
when customers use credit cards for transactions, the intercommunication is required
between the bank central computer and the POS terminal, in order to effect
verification of the card usage, can take place quickly and securely over
cellular channels using a mobile computer unit. This can speed up the
transaction process and relieve congestion at the POS terminals


Uses of smartphones or tablet in Healthcare Professional

computing is even useful in the healthcare. Nowadays the computing technologies
are useful to solve the case. Health care professionals now use smartphone or
tablet computers for functions they used to need a pager, cellphone, and PDA to
accomplish. Smartphones and tablets have even replaced desktop systems as the
preferred computing devices for HCPs who need fast access to information at the
point of care. Medical apps for many purposes are available, including ones for
electronic prescribing, diagnosis and treatment, practice management, coding
and billing, and CME or e-learning. One major motivation driving the
widespread adoption of mobile devices by HCPs has been the need for better
communication and information resources at the point of care. Ideally, HCPs
require access to many types of resources in a clinical setting, including:

capabilities—voice calling, video conferencing, text, and e-mail 
Hospital information systems
(HISs)—electronic health records (EHRs), electronic medical records
(EMRs), clinical decision support systems (CDSSs), picture archiving and
communication systems (PACSs), and laboratory information systems (LISs)
resources—textbooks, guidelines, medical literature, drug references
Clinical software applications—disease
diagnosis aids, medical calculators

Health care systems are often highly
dispersed, encompassing multiple locations such as clinics, inpatient wards,
outpatient services, emergency departments, operating theaters, intensive care
units, and labs. Consequently, HCPs not only need to be mobile themselves, they
also need to be able to communicate and collaborate with people in different
locations. Mobile devices satisfy this need by offering multiple means of
communication, including: voice and video calling; text, e-mail, and multimedia
messaging; and video conferencing. Clinical communication apps are
available for mobile devices that are specifically designed to simplify
communication among clinicians. In one study, mobile devices were shown to
improve communication between doctors and nurses on inpatient wards. In a
survey of medical school HCPs and students, more than 80% of respondents
described using mobile devices to communicate with colleagues about patient
care via e-mail, telephone, and text messages.1 They described texting as a
more efficient means of communication than telephone conversations or in-person
meetings. Mobile devices also allow rapid response to e-mail, allowing
users to keep up with communication. Texting or calling colleagues directly on
their mobile devices, rather than paging them, has also been shown to save
critical time in emergency cases. Mobile devices can also be used by
HCPs to aid long-distance patients by allowing them to text or send pictures
regarding problems or questions

Smart phones at work place

The most useful and compatible technology that can
work best with these internal tools seems to be the Smartphone because people
always carry it with them all the time (GoogleMobileAds, 2011). The Smartphone
has three main potentials that can benefit companies.


Smartphone promotes autonomy in a workplace, which makes
employees feel better. As technology engaging to human lifestyles, people tend
to have their own laptops or Smartphones, which often are better than the
devices that a company might provide (Zielinski, 2012). Many companies have
started using a Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) policy, which can reduce costs and
increase productivity. Instead of buying new devices, employees can bring their
own devices to work and a company can also give them an extra incentive
(Miller-Merrell, 2012). The company allows employees to have their own favorite
Smartphones for usage in the company.

Examples: At Ford Motor Co., this program is called
individual-liable device program (ILD), which had been utilized in 20 countries
since 2009 (Torode, 2011). Managers at Ford Motor Co. found that a lot of
employees owned Smartphones, and that they would love to have their Smartphones
available at work (Torode, 2011).

If companies are worried that the BYOD policy will result in
negative consequences, they can promote employees’ autonomy by giving them
companies’ Smartphones. Smartphones have been integrated into people’s lives.
There are some companies that completely prohibit their employees from using
their own Smartphones because of security reasons, but they give them a company
Smartphone to use at work. For Example:
Wells Fargo strongly prohibits a BYOD policy. It does not allow employee
personal devices to connect with its network at all (Brodkin, 2011). It is
understandable why Wells Fargo blocks employee personal devices from accessing
through its network because Wells Fargo is a financial services company.
Customers’ security is one of the most important factors for the company.
However, Wells Fargo allows employees to use its company’s devices such as
Smartphones, Tablets, etc. The company invests on these devices to give employees
the best. Moreover, the company gives employees choices on choosing their
favorite Smartphones whether they want to use iPhone, Android, or Blackberry’s
(Brodkin, 2011).

in a workplace

Smartphones helps improve relationships with peers as well
as superiors. As previously mentioned, Smartphone users tend to disconnect with
people in their real lives (Bozeman, 2011). Similarly in a workplace,
Smartphone usage distracts employees from information at meetings, and also
annoys others (Ebelhar, 2009). However, the Smartphone is a high potential
device that gets people together through the internet platform. CEOs or
Managers should take this chance to turn their employees’ Smartphones into
engagement tools. They could make an internal application or system that can
connect people in companies together, instead of connecting with their friends
outside workplaces. For Example:
Fortune 500 companies tried improving on improving employees’ relationships by
using internal social-communication systems such as an internal blog, Microsoft
SharePoint, etc within the company. The result was impressive, “Employee
feedback from the beta testing was extremely positive, as employees developed
deeper relationships with their fellow employees, increasing their satisfaction
with the company culture and work environments. Beta-project leaders reported
no incidents of employee misuse, and even at present employees self-police
their network use” (Miller-Merrell, 2012, p.4).

This example only uses their internal computer system to run
the experimental project, but the Smartphone is a higher capable than computers
because people always carry it all the time. If companies use this model to
connect their employees together, not only employees’ relationships with their
peers will be stronger, but also their relationships with their superiors will
be better.



Smartphone expands knowledge sharing. Every single company
needs to work on a flow of information and knowledge in order to develop their
employees to make them more productive. With the integration between Smartphone
and social network applications, people can share their information and
knowledge easily, “Internal social networks have also experienced a rise in
popularity, offering employees and managers a knowledge-share opportunity and a
virtual collaboration platform that keeps e-mail inboxes from being
overwhelmed” (Miller-Merrell, 2012, p.2). One of the most effective and popular
tools for knowledge sharing is known as “Cloud computing” (Anderson, 2010,
p.1), which is a sharing site hosted by other companies such as a
social-sharing site like Facebook, a video-sharing site like YouTube, a
document-sharing like GoogleDocs, etc. (Anderson, 2010). For instance, General
Electric (GE) has been using internal social network as a knowledge sharing
tool. The system has more than 100,000 internal experts who answer questions
from their internal communities all over the world. This internal system
connects GE’s employees together; their employees can share information,
documents, and questions and answers, which support their works (Naslund,
2010). For Example: Ford Motor Co.
focuses on information and knowledge sharing among their employees. Instead of
investing a lot of money on help-desk support like other companies, Ford Motor
Co. chooses to build a forum for their employees, so that they can share
information and help each other on their issues, especially with technology
issues (Torode, 2011).



computing offers significant benefits for organizations that choose to
integrate the technology into their fixed organizational information system. Mobile
computing is made possible by portable computer hardware, software, and
communications systems that interact with a non-mobile organizational
information system while away from the normal, fixed workplace. Mobile
computing is a versatile and potentially strategic technology that improves
information. Three main factors, which are autonomy, relationships, and
knowledge sharing, promote a higher level of job satisfaction, which can lead
to better work efficiency. Smartphone technology can support work flow in
company network, which enable people in the company to become productive and
profitable (Carayannis & Clark, 2011). Smartphones provide these benefits
to a business. Job satisfaction is one of many important factors that can lead
to work efficiency. If employees have a higher job satisfaction level, they are
more likely to be efficiency at work. The Smartphone is device that can
potentially help people in the business world. Corporate leaders will get
benefits from their employees who use Smartphones for the purpose of work, and
employees will benefit from Smartphones in terms of developing their
satisfaction and engagement at work. Business leaders should use the Smartphone
advantage by integrating Smartphone usage with workflow in order to increase
the level of work efficiency, so leaders can develop their businesses.




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