ABSTRACT one involving the use of litmus

ABSTRACTHydrogen ionconcentration is an experiment that articulates the concentration of hydrogenions in aqueous solution. The experiment contains two methods, one involvingthe use of litmus paper (colorimetric) and the other an electric pH-meter(Electrometric). The test determines the acidity or alkalinity of the mudsample and also the conductivity.

                   Table of Contents ABSTRACT…

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

…….

…..

….

……..

……

….

……

…….

. 3 INTRODUCTION…

…..

…..

….

…..

…….

……

……

…….

.. 4 EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS…

……..

…….

……

….

…..

……

. 5 SAMPLES USED DURING THE EXPERIMENT….

……

……

…..

…….

… 5 PROCEDURE FOR THE EXPERIMENT 1..

……..

….

…..

……

……

. 6 PROCEDURE FOR EXPERIMENT 2….

…….

….

….

….

….

……..

…. 6 RESULTS…

……

….

…….

…….

….

…….

….

…….

…… 7 PRECAUTION..

…..

……..

…….

…..

….

…..

…….

……

… 7 MAINTAINANCE…

….

…..

…….

…..

….

….

……..

…..

….. 8 DISCUSSIONS…

…….

……..

….

…..

……..

…….

…..

….

… 8 CONCLUSION…

….

……..

…..

….

………………………. 9 REFERENCE………………………………………………. 10                 INTRODUCTIONThe term pH is one used in articulating the concentration ofhydrogen ions in aqueous solution. pH is the logarithm of the reciprocal of thehydrogen ion concentration in gram moles per litre. The pH is tested in tworanges: acidic (Below 7) and alkaline (Above 7). It is also determined by twomethods which are: colorimetric and electrometric method. 1.    Colorimetric method: Here, the pH paper is saturated with dyesthat exhibit different colors when exposed to solutions of fluctuating pH. Ifthe salt concentration is too high it may cause the general estimate of the dyeto be unreliable. 2.    Electrometric method: This is an instrument that decides thepH of a aqueous solution by estimating the  electro potential generated between a specialglass electrode and a reference electrode. The meter has a range of 0 to 14 pHunit.               EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS1.     Mixing cup and mixer2.     Measuring cylinder3.     Weighing balance4.     pH meter5.     Litmus paper                    SAMPLES USED DURING THE EXPERIMENT25g ofbentonite350ml ofwater4g ofpotassium chloride       PROCEDURE FOR THE EXPERIMENT 11.     I measured 350ml of water with themeasuring cylinder. 2.     Using a weighing balance, I measured25g of bentonite.3.     I mixed water and bentonite into themixing cup and mixed with the mixer until there were no lumps.4.     I tore off and placed a short stripof PH paper on the surface of the sample.5.     After the color of the paper soothed,I reported the value of the pH using the standard chart.6.     Using the pH-meter, I turned it on withthe ON/OFF key.7.     I pushed the pH/mv key until theannunciators indicated the desired mode. 8.     I rinsed the probe with distilledwater and immersed the probe into the solution and allowed it to stabilize.9.     Then, I took my readings.              PROCEDUREFOR EXPERIMENT 21.     I measured 350ml of water with themeasuring tube. 2.     Using a weighing balance, I measured25g of bentonite.3.     I measured 4g of potassium chloride4.     I turned water; potassium chlorideand bentonite into the mixing cup and mixed with the mixer until there were nolumps.5.     I tore off and placed a short stripof PH paper on the surface of the sample.6.     After the color of the paper soothed,I reported the value of the pH using the standard chart.7.     Using the pH-meter, I turned it on withthe ON/OFF key.8.     I pushed the pH/mv key until theannunciators indicated the desired mode. 9.     I rinsed the probe with distilledwater and immersed the probe into the solution and allowed it to stabilize.10.  Then, I took my readings. RESULTS RESULTS FORSAMPLE 1 Colorimeter Electrometer Temp. With meter Range 8.5 8.41 24.9ºC 113.7mV RESULTS FORSAMPLE 2 (WITH POTASSIUM CHLORIDE)  Colorimeter Electrometer Temp. With meter Range 7.5 8.23 25.7ºC -57.2mV       PRECAUTION1.     I made sure I did not stick the pH paperinto the fluid sample.2.     I ensured that the probe was not dry.3.     I made sure the chlorideconcentration wasn’t greater than about 10,000mg/l4.     I made sure I didn’t use distilledwater or deionized water for storing under any circumstances.    MAINTAINANCE1)     Neverlet the probe tip become dry. The glass bulb of the probe should always be keptmoist for fast response. A rubber cap is supplied with the probe to cover theglass bulb with the solution. Remove the cap to use the electrode.2)     Ifthe tip of the probe is dry and the cap has been left off, dip the probe inpotassium chloride solution for 30 minutes or soak the tip water for a periodof 2 hours.3)     Whenthe electrode is not in use, replace the cap which should be filled with KCL orequivalent storage solution.4)     Donot use distilled or deionized water for storing under any circumtances.5)     IfKCL or equivalent storage is not available, use a 4.00 pH buffer, 7.00 pHbuffer or tap water.   DISCUSSIONSThe value of the pH is one that depicts the hydrogen ionconcentration in the fluid.it also displays the degree of alkalinity andacidity of the drilling mud.Determinations of the pH value are important in Petroleumdrilling muds because it distresses the contaminant removal, solubility oforganic thinners, corrosion mitigation and dispersion of clays present in themud.   CONCLUSIONTaking everything into account, determiningthe acidity or alkalinity of a mud test is fundamental as it not being knowncan cause a couple of issues down hole and even to the drilling equipment.                    REFERENCEDepartment of Petroleum Engineering, Drilling mud manual,Engr. Seteyeobot Ifeanyi 

x

Hi!
I'm Mary!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out