ABSTRACT distance away from a guide way using




This paper
involves the design, hardware, technology, application and future uses of “Magnetic levitation trains.” The maglev
transportation system is more stable, faster, efficient and economic. Maglev
systems are currently in use for applications such as bearings, high- speed
trains, and manufacturing. Maglev is a method of propulsion that uses magnetic
levitation to propel vehicles with magnets rather than with wheels, axles and
bearings. With maglev, a vehicle is levitated a short distance away from a
guide way using magnets to create both lift and thrust. In future these
High-speed maglev trains would give a huge competition to the aviation









I have chosen a very trending topic which is, the
“Magnetic Levitation Trains”.

My report is based on the basic information from the
internet further adding on, research from the newspaper as well as from the websites
which made my work easier. All the information was readily available which
added further to my interest in doing the project with utmost sincerity and
honestly. Therefore my work is a combination of primary and secondary data.
















Maglev trains
are the new technology which is a break through to the world. Maglev or
magnetic levitation is exactly how it sounds, which is the levitation of
objects or vehicle. Unlike the conventional vehicles with tires for cars or
rails for trains the whole system is changed. In maglev system there is no
contact between the roads and tires the object remains levitated hence traction
and friction doesn’t come into the picture. Friction and traction plays a major
role deciding the speed of the vehicle, without those the speed considerably
increases. Maglev trains doesn’t get affected by weather unlike the
conventional trains. Countries like India where most citizen travel through
train and having huge area of land this idea of maglev needs to be introduced
so that the time taken for travel can be incredibly reduced.




























A magnet is any object that has a magnetic field. It attracts
ferrous objects like pieces of iron, steel, nickel and cobalt. In the early
days, the Greeks observed that the naturally occurring ‘lodestone’ attracted
iron pieces. From that day onwards began the journey into the discovery of
magnets. These days’ magnets are made artificially in various shapes and sizes
depending on their use. One of the most common magnets – the bar magnet – is a long,
rectangular bar of uniform cross-section that attracts pieces of ferrous
objects. The magnetic compass needle is also commonly used. The compass needle
is a tiny magnet which is free to move horizontally on a pivot. One end of the
compass needle points in the North direction and the other end points in the
South direction. The end of a freely pivoted magnet will always point in the
North-South direction. The end that points in the North is called the North
Pole of the magnet and the end that points south is called the South Pole of
the magnet. It has been proven by experiments that like magnetic poles repel each
other whereas unlike poles attract each other.







Magnetic Field

The space surrounding
a magnet, in which magnetic force is exerted, is called a magnetic field. If a bar
magnet is placed in such a field, it will experience magnetic forces.


Magnetic Lines of Force

Magnetic field is
described by drawing the magnetic lines of force. When a small north magnetic
pole is placed in the magnetic field created by a magnet, it will experience a force.
Influence of a magnetic field is called a magnetic line of force. In other
words, the magnetic lines of force are the lines drawn in a magnetic field
along which a north magnetic pole would move. The direction of a magnetic line
of force at any point gives the direction of the magnetic force on a north pole
placed at that point. Since the direction of magnetic line of force is the
direction of force on a North Pole, so the magnetic lines of force always begin
on the N-pole of a magnet and end on the S-pole of the magnet. A small magnetic
compass when moved along a line of force always sets itself along the line
tangential to it. So, a line drawn from the South Pole of the compass to its
North Pole indicates the direction of the magnetic field.





technology uses monorail track with linear motors, these trains move on special
tracks rather than the mainstream conventional train tracks. They use very
powerful electromagnets to reach higher velocities, they float about 1- 10 cms
above the guide way on a magnetic field .These trains are propelled by the
guide ways. Once the train is pulled into the next section the magnetism
switches so that the train is pulled on again. The electro magnets run the
length of the guide way.



It is
the magnetic levitation of an object achieved by constantly altering
the strength of a magnetic field produced by electromagnets using
a feedback loop. In most cases the levitation effect is mostly due to
permanent magnets as they don’t have any power dissipation, with electromagnets
only used to stabilize the effect. According to Earnshaw’s
Theorem a paramagnetically magnetised body cannot rest in stable
equilibrium when placed in any combination of gravitational and magnetostatic
fields                                                                    In
these kinds of fields an unstable equilibrium condition exists. Although static
fields cannot give stability, EMS works by continually altering the current
sent to electromagnets to change the strength of the magnetic field and allows
a stable levitation to occur. In EMS a feedback loop which
continuously adjusts one or more electromagnets to correct the object’s motion
is used to cancel the instability. Many systems use magnetic attraction pulling
upwards against gravity for these kinds of systems as this gives some inherent
lateral stability, but some use a combination of magnetic attraction and magnetic
repulsion to push upwards. In this
system Electromagnets are attached to the train and also attached to the guide
way track. They have ferromagnetic stators on the track and they help them to
levitate the train. They have guidance magnets on the sides of the track they
are laid complete along the track A computer is used to control the height of
levitation of train they make us levitate about ( 1 – 15 cms ).The Max speed
these trains could reach is about 438km/hr. They have on-board battery power
supply which gives surplus amount of energy required to run a cabin.


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