ABNORMAL therefore needed to decide what behaviour is

ABNORMAL BEHAVIOUR -STEREOTYPIESvInorder to recognize that behaviour is abnormal , the person observing must befamiliar with the normal behaviour of that species.

vAdifficulty arises if many of the animals kept show the same kind of abnormal behaviour,may be taken as normalbehaviour.eg:bar biting in sows.vInorder to obtain knowledge of the behavioural repertoire of animals andestablish what is normality it is necessary to study the animals in arelatively complex environment where they have the opportunity to show the fullrange of their behaviour,it would not be the wild environment  but it should provide all the components thatare important for the animal.vAnextensive knowledge of the biology of animals and a detailed ecological investigation are therefore needed todecide what behaviour is abnormal.vAbnormalbehaviour is behaviour that differs in pattern, frequency or context from thatwhich is shown by most members  of aspecies in conditions that allow a full range of behaviour.

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ABNORMAL BEHAVIOURS1.Stereotypies2.Self directed and Environment directed3.Addressed to another individual4.Failure of function5.Anamalous reactivitySTEREOTYPIES It is a repeated ,relativelyinvariatesequence  of movements which has noobvious purpose.

Behavioural repertoires of animals  such as walking,flapping flight  would not be called stereotypies  rather it should have some apparent lack offunction. By the time stereotypy is established nosimple function is served.Physiology of stereotypy:üTheperformance of stereotyped behaviour depends on brain dopamine systems andopiate peptides in the brain.üNaloxone,which blocks the  mu receptor opiatesites for opioids such as beta endorphin,when administered cease thestereotypic behaviour.üSowsthat showed much stereotypy had lower mu and kappa receptorsand lower dopaminein the frontal cortex,while horses shoeing more stereotypies had more dopaminereceptors in the nucleus.üStereotypiesoccur in situations  where the individuallacks control of its environment.

Possible causes:Ø Frustrationabout food inadequacyØ Barrenenvironment,housing in individual stables ü Occurrence of stereotypies can bealleviated or eradicated by appropriate environmental enrichment.1.    Pacingor route tracing2.    Circlingand tail chasing.

3.    Rocking,swaying and weaving4.    Rubbinginvolveother parts of  the                                                     5.    Pawingand stall kickingbody6.    Headshaking and head nodding7.

    Windsucking8.    Eyerolling 9.    Shamchewing10.                       Tonguerolling involve 11.                       Lickingor crib whetting oral part12.

                       Barbiting ,tether biting or crib biting13.                       Drinkerpressing  1.PACINGOR ROUTE TRACING The repeated action patterns during pacing orroute tracing are those used in walking or other locomotion,but the animal follows a path that reurns to itsorigin and which is often repeated with only minor modifications.Examples1.Route tracing of zoo animals in cages 2.

Horses under conditions of minimalexercise in chronic confinement3.Hens before oviposition  if no nest material is available.  Causes:1.Frustration due to confinement,absenceof social partner,absence of food.Remedy :Providing comfortable environment byeliminating thwarting circumstances.2.

CIRCLINGOR TAIL CHASINGAnimals turn in tight circles and try to catch their own tails.Causes:Neurological disorderDermatological problemEnvironmental  inadequacyFrustrationExample : Tail chasing in dogs.Remedy:Treatment if it is neurological ordermatological disorder,Remove the frustrating situation.3)ROCKING, SWAYING AND WEAVING:The animal remains in one place,butthe  body is moved forwards andbackwards  from side to side, with orwithout head swinging.Examples:Monkeys in captivityHorses and cattle when tethered show rockybehaviour.Weaving in race horses,resulting inweight loss.Causes: No companies ,deprived of mother.

No variety in the environmentRemedy:Tying the horse with cross chains tolimit the lateral movement of the head.Turning out to pasture ,Enforcedexercise4)RUBBING: Some part of the body is moved against  solid object and the movement  is repeated so many times ,sometimes toalleviate local irritation.Causes:Close confinement, chronic restrictionExamples :Horned cattle rubbing against wall.Head rubbing in pigsHorses rubbing hindquarters.5)PAWING  AND STALL KICKINGPawing is a normal behaviour of fourlegged animals,it becomes  abnormal  when performed with vigour in a persistentstereotyped fashion.Causes :Frustration in dogsConfinementAttention seeking  in horses in case of stall kickingRemedy:Putting in pastureHanging mats or barriers 6)HEADSHAKING OR HEAD NODDINGHead is moved vertically,laterally witha rotatory movement of neck.Examples :Head shaking in domestic fowl.

Head nodding in horsesCauses:Close presence of observer in cagedbirdsNoxious gas in poultry house.Confinement Remedy :Comfortable environment7)WINDSUCKINGMovements  during which air is sucked in and expelled. Common in horsesRemedy:Use of wind sucker strap fastenedtightly around the throat,with a heart shaped piece of thick leather heldbetween the angles of the jaws with the pointed end protruding towards apharyngeal area,  which causes discomfortto the horses.Creation of fistulae on each side of themouth between the buccal cavity and outer cheek.

8).EYEROLLING :The eyes are moved around in the orbitat a time when no visible object is present.Young calves confined in cratessometimes stand immobile  for extendedperiods and eye rolling is repeated.9).SHAM CHEWING Moving jaws when the animal has no food in its mouth in monogastric animals.Common in sows  when tethered in stalls singly causesfrothing and foaming of saliva.Remedy :Providing straw or fibrous material tochew and root.

Group housing.   10).TONGUEROLLING:The tongue is extruded from the mouthand moved by curling and uncurling outside or inside  the mouth with no solid matter present.Common in Cattle and calves immediatelybefore and after feeding.In horses it is called as tongue drawing Remedy :Wind sucking trapsInsertion of metal ring at the frenulumlingueProvision of salt licks11).

LICKINGAND CRIB WHETTINGTongue is applied  repeatedly to an areas of animal’s own bodyor some objects in the surroundings.Remedy :Good supply of feedFree environment 12)BAR BITING ,TETHER BITING OR CRIB BITINGThe animal opens and closes its moutharound a bar and performs chewing movement.Pregnant sows which are more restrictedshow this behaviour. Crate in front and sides are made of metal piping ortethers that restrict the movement of the sowBar-biting is common in cattle. Crib–biting is common in horsesRemedy:Providing straw and increasing the food,comfortable environment13)DRINKER PRESSING Pressing automated drinker repeatedly withoutingesting water.Common in pregnant sows when providedwith a nipple drinker.REFERENCE:FRASER AF DM.1999.FARM ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR AND WELFARE

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