A the Michigan Business School; The Guest model

 A new concept called ‘Human Resource Management’ – a
modern version of what used to be called as personnel management was born in the 1980’s. Prior to that, the field was
generally known as “personnel administration (management)”, which was
mainly concerned the technical aspects of hiring, evaluating, training, and
compensating of employees and was very much of “staff” function in
most organizations, did not normally focus on the relationship of disparate
employment practices on overall organizational performance or on the systematic
relationships among such practices and also lacked a unifying paradigm. Throughout
history, human resource management has changed in name, mainly due to the
changes in social and economic activities. HRM came to counter balance
these trends and to consider the concept of the Man as a Man and not as a
machine.There are number of models
that have been postulated by various scholars to describe the HRM concept: The
Harvard Model – was postulated by Beer et al (1984) at Harvard University; The Michigan model – was propounded by Fombrun Tichy
and Devanna (1984) – at the Michigan Business School; The Guest model –
was propounded by David Guest in 1987; Model by John Sorey (1989) etc. David
Ulrich`s HR Model which is the most efficient HR Model to be used right now has
changed the view of many HR Professionals on their job and their daily duties. Importance
of engagement, culture
and technology for businesses is increasing. As these priorities shift, so has
the role of HR across many industries. HR team is one of the most
important pillars in modern business,
which is responsible for ensuring the right people are hired, managed and
tasked with helping business grow and develop. Since HR serves as an important
role, it is essential for HR professional to have the skills required to hire
and help employees succeed in their jobs. The job of Human Resources today is
to make people and organizations grow. Which knowledge, skills and behaviors
required by HR professionals?  The CIPD Profession Map
sets out standards for HR professionals around the world: the activities,
knowledge and behaviours needed for success: Professional zones in CIPD
framework are organisation design, organisation development, resourcing and talent planning, learning and development, performance
and reward, employee engagement, employee relations, service delivery and
information. The CIPD model includes the following competences necessary
for HR professionals: –      
role model (to set an example with the actions, observing
balance of private, organizational and legal interests);-      
resolute thinker (capability quickly to analyze and
understand information volumes within duties);-      
ability to influence;-      
enjoy confidence (ability by means of the professionalism,
combining business and HR examination, to add value to the work, organization
activity, colleagues);-      
capability to work for result;-      
readiness for changes.  “Coming
together is a beginning. Keeping together is progress. Working together is



a very important part of working life, team dynamics can have a big impact on
profitability of an organization, whether people enjoy their work, staff
retention rates, performance of team and individual, reputation of company, the way a team works and many others. However, team dynamics are often neglected or ignored; they
are the unconscious, psychological forces that influence the direction of
behaviour and performance of team. Being created by the nature of the team
work, the personalities within the team, their working relationships with other
people, and the environment in which the team works, they can be good – for
example, when they improve overall team performance and/or get the best out of
individual team members, and also bad – for example, when they cause
unproductive conflict, demotivation, and prevent the team from achieving its

There are different models
used to describe team dynamics.  Some of them describe the psychological
aspects, such as:

§  Group dynamics (Lewin) which considers how people
interact and common perceptions that arise within a group.

§  Psychoanalysis (Freud and Bion) which is concerned with
the (natural) defensive behaviours of team members.

§  FIRO/Human Elements (Schutz) which considers
the compatibility between people using behaviours of inclusion, control,
openness, and how those behaviours relate to inner feelings of significance,
competence, and likeability.

§  The Tuckman model considers five
stages of development for a team – forming, storming, norming, performing and

§  Team Roles such as MTR-i or Belbin examine how team
performance is related to nine psychological roles taken by different team

§  Personality type theories, such as Myers
Briggs, Disc, Herrmann Brain Dominance, consider how the different preferences
of team members affect their interactions and team performance.

§  Team Islands and In/Out groups, showing how sub-teams
can form as a result of members having different characteristics or being
separated by a geographical boundary.

On the other hand, there are
other models that have an important bearing on team dynamics and performance,
but are not typically included in definitions of group dynamics:

§  Models of
organisational culture,
such as Hofstede which considers five cultural factors: power distance,
uncertainty avoidance, individualism/collectivism, masculine/feminine, and
short-term/long-term focus.

§  General
leadership and management processes,
such as performance management, appraisal, reward/recognition, and individual
leadership or management practices (e.g. Situational Leadership).

§  Methodologies for different aspects of team functioning,
such as project management (e.g. Prince2), business process reengineering (e.g.
LEAN), collective problem solving, running meetings, information sharing,
communication, desk instructions, etc.

§  Various
types of organisational structure,
including hierarchical, functional, matrix, network, cross-functional teams,
working parties, etc.

§  Stakeholder models, including governance structure,
customer forums and feedback, representative groups (e.g. unions), etc.

These are relevant to team
dynamics because they can all have a hidden but significant impact on the way a
team interacts and performs. 


It was studied by key theorists such as Gustave Le Bon, William
McDougall, Sigmund Freud, Jacob L. Moreno, Kurt Lewin, William Schutz, Wilfred Bion, Bruce Tuckman, M. Scott Peck, Richard Hackman and


Bruce Tuckman published his Forming (pretending to get on or get along with
others) Storming (letting down the politeness barrier and trying to get down to
the issues even if tempers flare up) Norming (getting used to each other and
developing trust and productivity) Performing (working in a group to a common
goal on a highly efficient and cooperative basis) model in 1965 and refined his
theory around 1975 and added a fifth stage – Adjourning to the model, which is
also referred to as Deforming and Mourning.

As team members have different
viewpoints and, under the right set of circumstances, those differences
escalate to conflict and how to handle that conflict determines whether it
works to the advantage of team, or contributes to its demise. Resolving
conflict is multi stage process which includes:

Prepare for

Acknowledge the conflict

Discuss the impact

Agree to a cooperative process

Agree to communicate

Understand the


List facts, assumptions and beliefs
underlying each position

Analyze in smaller groups

Convene back as a team

Reach Agreement

Preventing Conflict


method to be used to resolve conflict / dispute will depend upon personal needs
and the nature of particular conflict / dispute. Ways to resolve disputes can be negotiation, mediation, arbitration,
litigation (going to court) and others.



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