A largeamount of learning is a result of consumers thinking and problem-solvingabilities.
When an individual is faces with a problem, they can sometimes see asolution instantly. We, as individuals are likely to look for more informationbased on which we can take decisions in line to our requirements or purposes.This learning that is based on mental learning is called as “cognitivelearning”. Cognitivelearning theory states that human beings most important learning is their ownproblem-solving skills. It makes individuals feel that they have some controlover the external environment. Usually learning theories put emphasis onexternal factors for explaining customer decision making and ignore theinternal psychological processes such as motivation, thinking and perception.
The assumption is that external environment stimulus will elicit the requiredresponse from the individual which is not the case always. Many consumerresearchers have actually disagreed to the simplified explanation thatbehavioural learning theories present and want to know more about the complexdecision-making process that happens due to consumers internal psychologicalfactors. Hence, they want to know how its stored retained and retrieved.This is focused on understanding how the information in humanmemory and how it is retrieved. Information processing deals with both thethings: – the complexity of the information that is to be processed by theconsumers and the consumers ability of cognition. A consumer processes theproduct on different parameters based on the information available to them.Information processing is majorly altered by the consumers ability to formmental picture.
The more vivid a consumer’s ability to form an image the moreare that consumers chances of recalling something. It is the consumers abilityto evoke clear images that increases their cognitive power. The most important thing to understand in informationprocessing is how the information is stored in the memory, how it is retainedthere and how it is retrieved from memory upon call.
· Sensory Store: – It is the temporary storage space forour memoryWeobtain all our information from our senses, but senses all get one fragment ofthe information that is available (nose will tell the smell, and skin will tellthe feel) this sensory information will get transferred to the brain wherebrain will collate all of this information together to form one singleinstance. This instance needs to be processed immediately or there are high chancesof loss. · Working memory/ knowing memory: -It is the temporary storage of memory whereinformation is actually processed. The information or the instance that istransferred from the sensory memory is actually processed here. if there issilent information repetition in 2-10 seconds then it is transferred to thelong-term memory, which takes about 30 seconds, else it gets lost.
· Long term memory:The information that reaches this stage can stay thememory for days or weeks or even months depending on the amount of repletionthat is done for that chunk of memory.it is also possible to forget an instancein a few minutes after it reached the long-term memory. · Retention: The information in long term memory doesn’t wait forretrieval rather the information is regularly organized and re-organized basedon the links that are formed between sets of information. Consumers interpretnew information in the same format that the original information is stored.Consumers are faced with huge amounts of data everyday and thus they maysometimes need to recode what they have already once encoded so as to includelarger amounts of data. · Retrieval: -It is the process of accessing the desired part orsection of information in the long-term storage. Consumers remember thebenefits of a product rather than its attributes and hence the advertisementsshould be based on benefits and not on attributes.
· Interference: -Interference is when old information in long termmemory clashes with new information that is being presented to the consumer.This will lead to low recall for that particular brand as there is interferencein new and old learnings. · Extensive information Processing: – A consumer passes through a long and complicatedseries mental and behavioural stages of data processing in order to come to apurchase decision. Hence the process that is followed for complex decisionmaking is awareness to interest to evaluation of options to behaviour orpurchase of product to final evaluation i.
e. adoption or rejection of thatproduct.