A TEXT BOOK FOR
BLACK PEARL PUBLISHERS
UNIT 1 Page No.
1. INTRODUCTION TO HOME SCIENCE 4-8
2. FOOD 9-14
3. NUTRITION 15-19
4. FOOD PREPARATION 20-26
5. HEALTH AND BALANCED DIET 27-33
6. DISEASES 34-38
INTRODUCTION TO HOME SCIENCE
“Home Science is concerned with the attainment of the well being of individual and families, the improvement of homes and preservation of values, significant of home life”.
What is Home Science?
It is subject dealing with income and expenditure of the family, cleanliness of the food, adequacy of clothing, proper choice of house, etc.
It is a practical science, which makes the student his family life successfully and solve social and economic problems easily and well.
It is the study of those principles, conditions and ideas which are concerned, on the one side, with immediate and physical environment of man and on the other, with his human nature.
“Home Science deals with all aspects of the community and nation. It integrates application of knowledge; synthesized from different sciences and humanities to improve the
human environment, family nutrition, management of resources, child development and consumer competencies.
PURPOSE OF STUDY OF HOME SCIENCE
The purpose of Home Science is the creation of an environment the and outlook which will encourage, motivate and enable man to live a richer and more purposeful life . Initially, it was considered that Home Science meant merely providing information on cooking and sewing. But now it is the study of scientific principles applicable for the better management of a home.
Home Science has emerged today as a perfect blend of Arts and Sciences. It is said to be a study based on the application in daily life of the basic sciences, the humanities and the fine arts. In other words, it is a body of systematized knowledge of organized experience of Art and Science that contributes towards building a happy home and family.
SCOPE AND STRUCTURE OF HOME SCIENCE
1. FOOD AND NUTRITION
2. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
3. COMMUNICATION AND EXTENSION
4. RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
5. TEXTILE AND CLOTHING
ADVANTAGES OF STUDY OF HOME SCIENCE
1. Home Science trains the student for not only the role of a home maker but also the member of other professions such as catering, teaching, etc.
2. Home Science helps in the creation of affectionate and systematic home environment for the members of the home and the family.
3. It helps in maximum utilization of resources in a family.
4. It helps in artistic aspect of the home.
5. It extends help for proper growth and development of children and their prevention from diseases.
6. It helps in bringing of children to better citizens and also looking after aged persons and expectant and nursing mothers.
CAREER OPTIONS IN HOME SCIENCE
o FOOD PRESERVATION
o BAKERY AND CONFETIONERY
o DIRECTOR OF HEALTH CLUBS
o HOTEL MANAGEMENT
o CARE OF ELDERLY
o PUBLIC RELATIONS
o MASS COMMUNICATION
o COMMUNITY SERVICE
o PERSONAL MANAGEMENT
o FINANCIAL PLANNER
o HOUSE KEEPER IN HOTELS
o INTERIOR DESIGNER
o FASHION DESIGNER
o GARMENT EXPORTER
o TEXTILE DESIGNER
SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS
1. DEFINE HOME SCIENCE.
2. WHAT IS THE SCOPE AND STRUCTURE OF HOME SCIENCE ?
3. NAME ANY 10 CAREER OPTIONS IN HOME SCIENCE.
LONG ANSWER QUESTIONS
1. WHAT IS HOME SCIENCE ?
2. WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF STUDY OF HOME SCIENCE ?
3. WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES OF STUDY OF HOME SCIENCE ?
4. WHAT IS HOME SCIENCE ACCORDING TO YOU?
FOOD Food can be defined as “anything solid or liquid which when swallowed, digested and assimilated in the body helps to keep the body well”.
The World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as “a state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”.
“The science that interprets the relationship of the food to the functioning of living organisms. It includes the intake of food, liberation of energy, elimination of wastes and all processes of synthesis are essential for maintenance, growth and reproduction”.
“Nutrition is the combination of processes by which living organisms receive and utilize the material necessary for the maintenances of its functions and for the growth and renewal of its components”.
GOOD FOOD = GOOD HEALTH
FUNCTIONS OF FOOD
Growth and Development
Young children and adolescents grow at a rapid rate, while in adults and the elderly most growth has stopped and nutrients are mostly used for maintaining their bodies.
Your body cells must be able to grow and develop as you do, and food plays a major part in this. Protein, for example, is the building block for every body tissue cell such as bone, teeth, skin, and muscle. If a person is lacking protein in the diet, problems may occur such as stunted growth and osteoporosis.
Food provides the materials needed to build, repair and
maintain body tissues. Proteins, fats and minerals are the best nutrients for growth. Growing bodies need extra amounts of these nutrients. Every person, whether growing or not, is going through a continual repair process of replacing injured , damaged or dead cells. It is food that supplies the nutrients necessary for this process.
Food supplies the fuel or energy needed to perform the many tasks of daily lives . We need energy to think, breathe, walk, sit, speak and even sleep. We get energy from carbohydrates, proteins and fats. It is important that we eat enough food to supply all our daily needs. If we don’t, we will feel tired and restless.. if we eat more energy food than our body needs, this energy will be stored in the body as fat. Too much stored energy will result in the body becoming overweight or obese.
Repair and Maintain Cells
achieving good health is one thing, but keeping it is another. You need to maintain your health, and you need good food in order to do this. For example, your skin is often cut or grazed, your hair falls out constantly and your red and white blood cells die on a regular basis. By consuming the right nutrients, your body will repair itself and stay healthy.
Similarly, you must be healthy enough to fight infections and diseases. A healthy individual who eats well and exercises regularly is less likely to suffer from a cold or flu than a person who eats poorly and does not exercise. Vitamins, minerals and protein keep the body’s tissues and organs healthy. Healthy organs are less likely to be attacked by disease.
Healthy foods keep the body healthy and maintains it.
Unhealthy food keeps the body lazy.
SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS
1. DEFINE FOOD.
2. DEFINE HEALTH.
3. DEFINE NUTRITION.
4. GOOD FOOD = GOOD HEALTH . GIVE YOUR VIEWS ON THIS STATEMENT.
LONG ANSWER QUESTIONS
1. HOW DOES FOOD AFFECT GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT?
2. HOW DOES FOOD AFFECT ENERGY?
3. HOW DOES FOOD AFFECT REPAIR AND MAINTAIN CELLS?
NUTRITION AND NUTRIENTS
Nutrition means supply of essential organic and inorganic chemical compounds to the body.
Nutrients are chemical substances present in the body which perform different functions relating to body growth and development and maintenance of good health.
NEED OF NUTRITION
GROWTH building up new protoplasm or cells for growth.
REPAIR providing material for the repair of worn-out or injured cells
ENERGY providing energy needed by the body to carry out various life functions.
MAINTENANCE of chemical composition of cells.
PROVISION OF RAW MATERIALS for the manufacture of various secretions such as enzymes, hormones, sweat, milk, etc.
PROTECTION from diseases and infections.
CLASSES OF NUTRIENTS
4. Mineral salts
They are compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, with hydrogen and oxygen always in the ratio 2:1.
A.MONOSACCHIRIDES OR SINGLE SUGARS
I. Glucose- found in organisms
II. Fructose- is commonly found in plants
III. Galactose- found in milk
B.DISACCHIRIDES OR DOUBLE SUGARS
I. Sucrose- made of glucose and fructose
II. Maltose- made of two glucose molecules
III. Lactose- made of glucose and galactose
STARCH also called polysaccharides
I. Cellulose is found in cell walls of plants. It is unused in our bodies but it contributes in providing roughage for the proper functioning of the gut.
II. Glycogen is the form in which carbohydrates are stored in animals.
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.1 Fats, also known as triglycerides, are esters of three fatty acid chains and the alcohol glycerol. The terms “lipid”, “oil” and “fat” are often confused. “Lipid” is the general term, though a lipid is not necessarily a triglyceride. “Oil” normally refers to a lipid with short or unsaturated fatty acid chains that is liquid at room temperature, while “fat” (in the strict sense) may specifically refer to lipids that are solids at room temperature – however, “fat” (in the broad sense) may be used in food science as a synonym for lipid. Fats, like other lipids, are generally hydrophobic, and are soluble in organic solvents and insoluble in water.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity.
A mineral is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life. Minerals originate in the earth and cannot be made by living organisms. Plants get minerals from soil. Most of the minerals in a human diet come from eating plants and animals or from drinking water. As a group, minerals are one of the four groups of essential nutrients, the others of which are vitamins, essential fatty acids, and essential amino acids.
A vitamin is an organic compound and an
essential nutrient that an organism requires in limited amounts. An organic chemical compound is called a vitamin when the organism cannot make the compound in sufficient quantities, and it must be obtained through the diet; thus, the term vitamin is conditional upon the circumstances and the particular organism. For example, vitamin C is a vitamin for humans, but not most other animals which make enough internally. Vitamin D is essential only for people who do not have adequate skin exposure to sunlight, because the ultraviolet light in sunlight normally promotes synthesis of vitamin D. While vitamin supplements are important for the treatment of certain health problems,1 otherwise healthy people generally receive no benefit from using vitamin supplements.
Water Protects Your Tissues, Spinal Cord, and Joints
Water Helps Your Body Remove Waste
Water Aids in Digestion
Water Prevents You From Becoming Dehydrated
SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS
1. DEFINE NUTRITION.
2. DEFINE NUTRIENTS.
3. WHAT ARE THE CLASSIFICATIONS OF NUTRIENTS?
4. WHAT IS THE NEED OF NUTRITION?
5. WRITE DOWN THE CLASSIFICATION OF CARBOHYDRATES.
LONG ANSWER QUESTIONS
1. WRITE SHORT NOTES ON ALL THE NUTRIENTS.
2. WHAT ARE THE FUNCTIONS OF WATER? DO YOU AGREE WITH THE FUNCTIONS ? GIVE REASONS
The word cooking actually means to prepare food or a meal by heating the ingredients so as to make them edible.
PURPOSES OF COOKING FOOD
1. To change or improve the taste of the food e.g flour being used to make cake.
2. To change the texture (the way something feels) of food e.g. using cornmeal to make pastelles. Raw cornmeal is very grainy and coarse but when it is cooked with a liquid it becomes softer , smoother and more palatable.
3. To make food safer to consume (eat). A good example of this can be found in our picture above where eggs are cooked to make devilled eggs. Raw meat, fish, poultry and egg should all be cooked to make them safe to consume since they contain bacteria that can be harmful to us. For instance, eating raw eggs can cause Salmonella poisoning whose symptoms include
vomitting and diarhoea, nausea and general ill health.
4. To make foods more digestable e.g tough cuts of meat, hard staples such as rice and cassava. Cooking these foods makes it easier for the body to use it and get all the nutrients from it.
5. To increase the shelf life of the food e.g. making jam from guava. Adding sugar and heating the guava to make jam will make a product that has a longer shelf life than fresh guavas.
METHODS OF COOKING AND THEIR NUTRITIONAL EFFECTS ON FOOD
Boiling, Simmering and Poaching
Boiling, simmering and poaching are similar methods of water-based cooking.
These techniques differ by water temperature:
• Poaching: Less than 180°F/82°C.
• Simmering: 185–200°F/85–93°C.
• Boiling: 212°F/100°C.
Vegetables are generally a great source of vitamin C, but a large amount of it is lost when cooked in water.
In fact, boiling reduces vitamin C more than any other cooking method. Broccoli, spinach and lettuce may lose up to 50% or more of their vitamin C when boiled .Because vitamin C is water-soluble and sensitive to heat, it can leach out of vegetables when they’re immersed in hot water. B vitamins are similarly heat sensitive. Up to 60% of thiamin, niacin and other B vitamins may be lost when meat is simmered and its juices run off. However, when the liquid containing these juices is consumed, 100% of the minerals and 70–90% of B vitamins are retained .On the other hand, boiling fish was shown to preserve omega-3 fatty acid content significantly more than frying or microwaving (7).
GRILLING AND BROILING
Grilling and broiling are similar methods of cooking with dry heat. When grilling, the heat source comes from below, but when broiling, it comes from above. Grilling is one of the most popular cooking methods because of the great flavor it gives food. However, up to 40% of B vitamins and minerals may be lost during grilling or broiling when the nutrient-rich juice drips from the meat .There are also concerns about polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are potentially cancer-causing substances that form when meat is grilled and fat drips onto a hot surface.Luckily, researchers have found that PAHs can be decreased by 41–89% if drippings are removed and smoke is minimized
Microwaving is an easy, convenient and safe method of cooking. Short cooking times and reduced exposure to heat preserve the nutrients in micro waved food .Studies have found that microwaving is the best method for retaining the antioxidant activity in garlic and mushrooms. About 20–30% of vitamin C in green vegetables is lost during microwaving, which is less than most cooking methods .
ROASTING AND BAKING
Roasting and baking refer to cooking food in an oven with dry heat. Although these terms are somewhat interchangeable, the term “roasting” is typically used for meat while “baking” is used for bread, muffins, cake and similar foods. Most vitamin losses are minimal with this cooking method, including vitamin C. However, due to long cooking times at high temperatures, B vitamins in roasted meat may decline by as much as 40% .
SAUTÉING AND STIR-FRYING
With sautéing and stir-frying, food is cooked in a saucepan over medium to high heat in a small amount of oil or butter. These techniques are very similar, but with stir-frying the food is stirred often, the temperature is higher and the cooking time is shorter. In general, this is a healthy way to prepare food. Cooking for a short time without water prevents loss of B vitamins, and the addition of fat improves the absorption of plant compounds and antioxidants. One study found that absorption of beta-carotene was 6.5 times greater in stir-fried carrots than in raw . In another study, blood lycopene levels increased 80% more when people consumed tomatoes sautéed in olive oil rather than without. On the other hand, stir-frying has been shown to significantly reduce the amount of vitamin C in broccoli and red cabbage.
Frying involves cooking food in a large amount of fat, usually oil, at a high temperature. The food is often coated with batter or bread crumbs. It’s a popular way of preparing food because the skin or coating maintains a seal, which ensures that the inside remains moist and cooks evenly. The fat used for frying also makes the food taste very good. However, not all foods are appropriate for frying. Fatty fish are the best sources of omega-3 fatty acids, which have many health benefits. These fats are very delicate and prone to damage at high temperatures. Frying tuna has been shown to degrade its omega-3 content by up to 70–85%, while baking caused only minimal losses. In contrast, frying preserves vitamin C and B vitamins, and it may also increase the amount of fiber in potatoes by converting their starch into resistant starch. When oil is heated to a high temperature for a long period of time, toxic substances called aldehydes are formed. Aldehydes have been linked to an increased risk of cancer and other diseases. The type of oil, temperature and length of cooking time affect the amounts of aldehydes produced. Reheating oil also increases aldehyde formation. If you’re going to fry food, don’t overcook it, and use one of the healthiest oils for frying.
Steaming is one of the best cooking methods for preserving nutrients, including water-soluble vitamins that are sensitive to heat and water. Researchers have found that steaming broccoli, spinach and lettuce reduces their vitamin C content by only 9–15%. The downside is that steamed vegetables may taste bland. However, this is easy to remedy by adding some seasoning and oil or butter after cooking.
TIPS TO MAXIMIZE NUTRIENT RETENTION DURING COOKING
1. Use as little water as possible for poaching or boiling.
2. Consume the liquid left in the pan after cooking vegetables.
3. Add back juices from meat that drip into the pan.
4. Don’t peel vegetables until after cooking them. Better yet, don’t peel at all to maximize fiber and nutrient density.
5. Cook vegetables in smaller amounts of water to reduce loss of vitamin C and B vitamins.
6. Try to finish cooked vegetables within a day or two, as vitamin C content may continue to decline when the cooked food is exposed to air.
7. Cut food after rather than before cooking, if possible. When food is cooked whole, less of it is exposed to heat and water.
8. Cook vegetables for only a few minutes whenever possible.
9. When cooking meat, poultry and fish, use the shortest cooking time needed for safe consumption.
10. Don’t use baking soda when cooking vegetables. Although it helps maintain color, vitamin C will be lost in the alkaline environment produced by baking soda.
SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS
1. DEFINE COOKING
2. WHAT ARE THE PURPOSES OF COOKING?
3. NAME THE DIFFERENT METHODS OF COOKING.
LONG ANSWER QUESTIONS
1. WHAT ARE THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT METHODS OF COOKING ON FOOD?
2. WHAT ARE THE TIPS TO MAXIMIZE NUTRIENT RETENTION DURING COOKING.
HEALTH AND BALANCED DIET
Diet is the combination of foods which we eat in our meals.
A balanced diet is the one which includes food items which supply all necessary nutrients.
“A balanced diet is defined as the one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories, minerals, vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met. A small provision has to be made for extra nutrients to withstand short duration of leanness”.
Meal is the food taken at one time to satisfy appetite.
Appetite means desire to eat.
Hunger is the uneasy sensation due to lack of food.
A BALANCED DIET CHART
A BALANCED DIET CHART FOR PREGNANT WOMEN
8 EASY WAYS TO ADOPT A HEALTHY LIFESTYLE
1. Eat healthy-Eating healthy does not mean that you avoid certain food and eat others. It rather means having a good proportion of all the vitamins, nutrients and minerals in your diet – which is referred to as a Balanced Diet.
2. Drink a lot of water-Water helps in burning calories, it also helps in maintaining a proper balance of fluids in the body. Water plays an important role in promoting weight loss. It also flushes out the toxins from the body. One must at least drink 2-3 litres of water in a day.
3. Include exercise in your everyday routine- Fitness should be a part of your life as it not only keeps your weight in check but also prevents a lot of diseases such as cardiovascular diseases (strokes/ attacks), keeps blood pressure in control, prevents insomnia and many more.
4. Good sleep-A proper sleep plays an important role in your healthy lifestyle. Your body needs good sleep to repair and heal itself. One must set a proper sleep schedule which must be 6-8 hours per day in adults.
5. Maintain proper hygiene-In our entire lifetime, we come in close contact with a lot of living organisms that share a common living environment. Some of these organisms are dangerous for our health as they cause various infections.
6. Avoid unhealthy habits-Some of the unhealthy habits that you should avoid to lead a healthy life are drinking too much alcohol, smoking, lack of exercise, not visiting your doctor on a regular basis for checkups, eating unhealthy foods, not taking the prescribed medicines, having unsafe sex, skipping meals.
7. Stress management-Stress is the cause of many diseases, it hampers our health both directly and indirectly. The outcome of too much stress is drinking too much, smoking and overeating.
8. Train body and mind-Aligning our mind and body is very important and to do that you must have a vision and a goal that inspires and excites you.
Meal Planning means ” planning for adequate nutrition”. Meal planning is both an art and science.
Meal planning can be defined as the “implementation of the principles of nutrition in one’s daily life in an appetizing way”.
PRINCIPLES OF MEAL PLANNING
Adequacy: By adequacy, I mean the meal plan or meals we eat provide enough energy, major macronutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate), micronutrients (calcium), and fluid that our bodies need to function optimally and to support life-long health. This means we’re eating enough to support our bodies through day-to-day activities like school and work, and we’re giving ourselves fuel to support physical activity (rather than exercising to compensate for what we’ve already eaten or are planning to eat). We’re generally getting this nutrition through 3 meals and 2-3 snacks each day.
Balance: All of the major food groups are present in meals, and generally two are present at snacks. The body needs adequate amounts of carbohydrate, fat, and protein to function well. We can have favorites, but this isn’t a low-carbohydrate or low-fat diet. We’re including fruit and vegetables at every meal, but we’re having more than simple salad for lunch.
Variety: Get the nutrition we need from a variety of foods. Switch things up to help ensure your body gets exposed to a variety of phytochemicals and micronutrients. There’s no magic super food, but incorporating different kinds of foods into our meals and snacks helps us maximize the nutrition we are getting. It also means we don’t get stuck in a rut, eating the same foods day after day, either because it feels like the safe thing to do or the only thing we know how to do.
Moderation: This is the complement to the adequacy piece above; we absolutely want to meet our nutrition needs, but we also want to stop at a comfortable place where we’ve had enough. A lot of my patients are surprised to hear that desserts are included in the meal plan, and snacks and meals are made up of what we want to eat, what we’re in the mood for, or what sounds good. Learning when and how to say “that’s enough” can sometimes take practice, so if you need help, ask for it (a good dietitian can be a great asset here).
Nourishment: This is the place where food feeds the soul. We eat for enjoyment, to socialize, because we’re intrigued by something new or returning to an old favorite. We eat for other reasons besides hunger and biological need; that’s part of being human, and it’s OK to do this. This is the place where we get to experiment. We can and should eat fun, thrilling foods.
IMPORTANCE OF MEAL PLANNING
1. Plan ahead: Make a menu schedule one week at a time. Grocery shop on the weekend, pre-wash and chop fruits and vegetables so they are ready when you need them.
2. Batch Cooking: Double your recipes when cooking on the weekend so all you have to do on a week night is thaw and reheat. Meal planning and bulk cooking are both wonderful techniques you can utilize and modify to fit your families needs. The idea behind this is simple. The principle is that you cook and or prepare your meals ahead of time and then preserve them by either freezing or refrigerating them. Also, meal planning you can cook one large meal and get 2-3 other meals out of it! The key here is to make every meal you cook count!
3. Get everyone involved: Get your kids involved with setting the table, filling glasses with water or milk, and making a salad. Cooking together is also a great way to teach your kids about preparing healthy and delicious foods.
4. Enjoy your mealtime: Keep mealtime conversation topics light and fun. Dinner is not the time to make nasty comments about each other, rather use this precious time to practice good manners and conversation skills. Enjoyable meal times will ensure that the entire family makes time to be there for the meal.
5. Plan for leftovers: Try to use the leftover ingredients and turn it into some other recipe for the next meal to save time and avoid wastage. For eg . idlis leftover from one meal can be turned into fried idli with vegetables for another meal.
6. Label your containers: Have a good container and label system in place. That way, you know what you can use later and have a date to work with.
Families that eat together, stay together! But it is not always easy, however, with some planning and patience, it is possible. If not every meal, try eating a few meals together each week. You will surely create and cement the bonds of a lifetime!
SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS
1. DEFINE DIET.
2. DEFINE BALANCED DIET.
3. DEFINE MEAL.
4. DEFINE APPETITE.
5. DEFINE HUNGER.
6. DEFINE MEAL PLANNING.
7. WHAT IS MEAL PLANNING ACCORDING TO YOU.
8. WRITE A MEAL PLAN FOR 1 – 3 YEAR OLDS.
LONG ANSWER QUESTIONS
1. MENTION WAYS TO ADOPT HEALTHY LIFESTLE.
2. WRITE THE IMPORTANCE OF MEAL PLANNING.
3. WRITE THE PRINCIPLES OF MEAL PLANNING.
WHAT IS A DISEASE?
The term disease is a condition in which the normal functioning of the body is disturbed. Many times such conditions are not very serious and get cured, but sometimes they become serious and even fatal.
Disease is a departure from normal health through structural or functional disorder of the body.
WORLD HEALTH DAY – APRIL 7
SELECTIVE NUTRIENT DEFICIENCY
disease (and key nutrient involved) symptoms foods rich in key nutrient
(vitamin A) blindness from chronic eye infections, poor growth, dryness and keratinization of epithelial tissues liver, fortified milk, sweet potatoes, spinach, greens, carrots, cantaloupe, apricots
(vitamin D) weakened bones, bowed legs, other bone deformities fortified milk, fish oils, sun exposure
(thiamin) nerve degeneration, altered muscle
coordination, cardiovascular problems pork, whole and enriched grains, dried beans, sunflower seeds
(niacin) diarrhea, skin inflammation, dementia mushrooms, bran, tuna, chicken, beef, peanuts, whole and enriched grains
(vitamin C) delayed wound healing, internal bleeding, abnormal formation of bones and teeth citrus fruits, strawberries, broccoli
(iron) decreased work output, reduced growth,
increased health risk in pregnancy meat, spinach, seafood, broccoli, peas, bran, whole-grain and enriched breads
(iodine) enlarged thyroid gland, poor growth in infancy and childhood, possible mental retardation, cretinism iodized salt, saltwater fish
PROTEIN – ENERGY DEFICIENCY
Chronic under nutrition manifests primarily as protein-energy malnutrition (PEM), which is the most common form of malnutrition worldwide. Also known as protein-calorie malnutrition, PEM is a continuum in which people—all too often children—consume too little protein, energy, or both. At one end of the continuum is kwashiorkor, characterized by a severe protein deficiency, and at the other is marasmus, an absolute food deprivation with grossly inadequate amounts of both energy and protein.
An infant with marasmus is extremely underweight and has lost most or all subcutaneous fat. The body has a “skin and bones” appearance, and the child is profoundly weak and highly susceptible to infections. The cause is a diet very low in calories from all sources (including protein), often from early weaning to a bottled formula prepared with unsafe water and diluted because of poverty. Poor hygiene and continued depletion lead to a vicious cycle of gastroenteritis and deterioration of the lining of the gastrointestinal tract, which interferes with absorption of nutrients from the little food available and further reduces resistance to infection. If untreated, marasmus may result in death due to starvation or heart failure.
Kwashiorkor, a Ghanaian word meaning the disease that the first child gets when the new child comes, is typically seen when a child is weaned from high-protein breast milk onto a carbohydrate food source with insufficient protein. Children with this disease, which is characterized by a swollen belly due to edema (fluid retention), are weak, grow poorly, and are more susceptible to
infectious diseases ,which may result in fatal diarrhea. Other symptoms of kwashiorkor include apathy, hair discoloration, and dry, peeling skin with sores that fail to heal. Weight loss may be disguised because of the presence of edema, enlarged fatty liver, and intestinal parasites; moreover, there may be little wasting of muscle and body fat.
Kwashiorkor and marasmus can also occur in hospitalized patients receiving intravenous glucose for an extended time, as when recovering from surgery, or in those with illnesses causing loss of appetite or malabsorption of nutrients. Persons with eating disorders, cancer, AIDS, and other illnesses where appetite fails or absorption of nutrients is hampered may lose muscle and organ tissue as well as fat stores.
Treatment of PEM has three components. Life-threatening conditions—such as fluid and electrolyte imbalances and infections—must be resolved. Nutritional status should be restored as quickly and safely as possible; rapid weight gain can occur in a starving child within one or two week. The focus of treatment then shifts to ensuring nutritional rehabilitation for the long term. The speed and ultimate success of recovery depend upon the severity of malnutrition, the timeliness of treatment, and the adequacy of ongoing support. Particularly during the first year of life, starvation may result in reduced brain growth and intellectual functioning that cannot be fully restored.
SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS
1. DEFINE DISEASES.
2. WHAT IS A DISEASE.
3. WHEN IS WORLD HEALTH DAY CELEBRATED?
LONG ANSWER QUESTIONS
1. LIST SYMPTOMS OF SELECTIVE NUTRIENT DEFICIENY.
2. WHAT ARE THE PROTEIN – ENERGY DISEASES.
Food is a basic necessity of life and everyone deserves to consume healthy and nutritious food.
With the help of this text book one can gain the knowledge of food and nutrition .
It is beneficial, as one shall know the methods of cooking and the nutritional values present in the food items which are to be consumed.