A laminar flow wing is designed for a smooth laminar flowacross the wings of the aircraft so that there are no interruptions in the boundarylayer. This allows the drag to be reduced significantly. This wing has amaximum thickness in the middle of the camber line so that it is possible toretain laminar flow over the wing when cruising at higher speeds.
A supercritical wing is designed to delay the onset ofwave drag in the transonic speed range. These wings are flatter on top and havesmaller leading edge radius’s. The upper trailing edge of supercritical wingshas a downward curve that restores lift that is lost by the flattening of the uppersurface. The aft section on this wing has a high camber so that it can achieve higherspeeds during flight. These wings develop shock waves further aft so that dragis reduced.
According to Dole & Lewis, the “longitudinalstability and control refer to the behavior of the airplane in pitch, that is,movements of the longitudinal axis about the later axis” (2000, pg. 242). So,the aircrafts position of CG in connection to its neutral point affects thelongitudinal stability. If an aircraft’s CG is forward of its neutral pointthen it is stable, but if the CG is aft of its neutral point, then the aircraftis not as stable.
After the control stick is pulled to rear and released, theaircraft will return to the trimmed AOA when is has positive stability.However, if the aircraft has negative stability, then it will pitch away from thetrimmed AOA when the control stick is pulled back and let go. The factors that determine the takeoff criticalfield length for a certain runway are the thrust, altitude of the airport, theslope and surface of the runway, the speed and direction of the wind, thetemperature and the gross weight of the aircraft (Dole & Lewis, 2000). If afterdoing initial calculations and the pilot finds the runway is too short, then heor she should refer to the Pilot’s Operating Handbook for Short field takeoffminimums and follow all the steps. They should adjust the aircraftconfiguration by removing any excess weight and wait to proceed until it issafe to takeoff.