A dog is a man’s best friend. Dogs are very loyal companions. In its wild state a dog can be very dangerous. A dog hands out pure love and only ask for your attention in return. The many breeds of dogs have been domesticated over the centuries despite coming from different origins. The origin of dogs is still trying to be figured out. Most scientist believe that most dogs come from Asia. Dogs are estimated to be 10,000 to 38,000 years old. Dogs were bred for many different reasons. One of the main reasons was for livestock guarding. Livestock breeding dogs have been used in nomadic herding for centuries. Livestock guarding dates back more than 2,000 years. The most common animals the dogs were with were goats, sheep, and cattle. The dogs were used to protect livestock from predators and thieves. The dog would be placed in the herd and would stay with them. The dog will naturally begin to bond with the herd. The dog will spend a lot of time with the herd beginning at a young age. Usually people will put a young pup with an older seasoned dog. The older dog will begin to train the pup from the moment it is placed with the herd. The dog should be alert at all times. They should not show aggressive tendencies against the herd. When a predator is lurking, the dogs barking is the first warning. As the predator lurks toward the herd the dog will take a attacking stance and increase the barking. The attack is a last resort for the dog. In some cases, the presence of the dog is enough to deter the predator. Large livestock dogs are really intelligent and will serve the herd for many years. About 44% of families in the U.S. include one dog in their household. That means that there about 80 million dogs are in the United States. Dogs don’t speak language like humans do but they communicate using their eyes, barks, and their body expressions. Dogs are extremely intelligent. They can sort of count. The dog can look at 2 boards and choose which boards have more items on it. They can read human faces. When the dog sits and gazes at you it is to get your attention. In some cases, dogs are smarter than humans. In a test at Yale dogs and children were given a box with a treat in it. To open the box a lever had to be turned. Both parties figured out how to open the box. The same test was given but the lever wasn’t needed to open the box. The children couldn’t figure out the box while the dog figured it out. Some dogs can beat us at such small tasks. The brainpower is determined by the brain size compared to the body. Humans are at a 1:50 ratio. Dog are at an impressive 1:125 ratio. Humans and dogs have similar brains. For many years people believed that’s it’s impossible for dogs to love their owners back. Most psychologist claim that dogs that display emotions are reacting to hormonal rushes. With new evidence from testing on dogs, psychologists have found that dogs experience emotions of deep fear, jealousy, and grief. A lot of dog owners rely on their dog for emotional support. Dogs experience the most ancient emotion fear. It is produced by the amygdala. It is an almond shaped organ in the brain responsible for emotions, survival instincts, and memory. Dogs also feel something close to love. Studies show that the dog has the most emotional complexity in animals. Dogs have evolved into master communicators. Recent studies show that dogs are better at reading human expressions than chimpanzees. This would explain how dogs have been man’s best friend for years. There are 5 main dimensions of a dog’s personality: sociability, affection, emotional stability, obedience, and intelligence. These are similar to the human dimensions. There has been an increase of the psychoactive pet drug Clomicalm which is the dog version of Prozac. If dogs didn’t have the same neurotransmitters why do they respond to our mood lifters. Dog psychiatry has extended to treatments such as hydrotherapy and acupuncture. Dogs may have many of the same brain structures as humans. In years to come science will improve so much that we will be able to put a brain scanning helmet on a dog and find all the secrets of the canine mind. The World Canine Organization is best known by its French title Fédération Cynologique Internationale which is abbreviated FCI. It is the largest registry of dog breeds that is internationally accepted. The FCI recognizes 339 breeds of dogs. There are ten major groups that dogs are divided in Sheepdogs and Cattle Dogs, Pinscher and Schnauzer, Terriers, Dachshunds, Spitz and Primitive Types, Scent hounds and Related Breeds, Pointers and Setters, Retrievers, Flushing Dogs, Water Dogs, Companion and Toy Dogs, and Sighthounds. The cattle and sheepdogs are the ones I explained in the second paragraph. Schnauzers were originally bred for herding and property protection. The Schnauzers originated from Germany. Terriers were bred for getting foxes and other burrowing animals out of there lairs. Terriers originated from Great Britain and Ireland. Standard size Dachshunds were bred to chase out badgers and other burrowing animals. The smaller Dachshunds were bred to chase smaller game such as rabbits. Dachshunds originated from Germany. Spitz dogs were bred for working such as hunting, herding, and pulling sleds. Spitz dogs originated from the Artic regions and Siberia. Primitive dogs are mostly known for being free range dogs. They originated from Australia and Southeast Asia. Scent hounds are hunting dogs that rely more on scent than sight when hunting. They are said to have the most sensitive nose among dogs. They originated from France, United Kingdom, Scotland, England, and Belgium. Pointers were bred to be a type of gundog to flush out game. They originated from England and Europe. Setters were bred to be a gundog used to hunt birds such as quail, pheasant, and grouse. They originated from the United Kingdom and Spain. Retrievers were a gundog bred to retrieve the game that the hunter has killed. Retrievers originated from United Kingdom, Scotland, and England. Companion dogs were bred for companionship not working. There are sixty-four breeds recognized as companion dogs. Toy dogs are the smallest group of dog breeds. There are twenty-eight breeds recognized as Toy dogs. Sighthounds are a hunting breed that hunt using their speed and sight rather than their counterpart the Scent hound.