A moderatelycomplex project has indirect costs such as supervision, administration, consultants,and interest. These are all correlated with time. The less time that is usedfor a project, the less indirect costs like administration or interest to becharged. b. 1.
Unforeseendelays. Often times uncontrollable aspects like adverse weather, design flaws,and equipment breakdowns can cause substantial delays in the project timeline. 2. Incentive contracts are also a commonreason for crashing a project.
It is an incentive for both the project groupand the owners for a project to be ahead of schedule. Less down time means moreproductive time.3. Imposed deadlines is another reason foraccelerating.
This is basically when a person relative to a project makes abold statement about the completion date without adequate research and planning,and then society expects it to be done at that time. 4. High overheads are another reason. Highoperating costs that occur each day during a project will definitely make aproject group and owner want to consider shedding some weight and cracking thewhip.5.
Reassigning key equipment and/or peopleis the last reason. Not every project can be planned perfectly, so someresources may have to be reallocated to other more critical branches of theproject to keep it afloat. 2. a. The differencebetween functional and dysfunctional conflict is not always clear. Sometimesconflict is good for a project team to face an elephant in the room, or itcould hurt the team by burning bridges. Basically speaking, functionalconflicts further the objectives of the project while dysfunctional conflictwill hinder project performance.
b. A projectmanager can take the following steps to avoid the pitfalls of a highly cohesiveproject team including groupthink, bureaucratic bypass syndrome, teaminfatuation or going native. Having awareness is critical to mitigating thenegative effects of a highly cohesive team by being aware that there is apotential downside to such teams and can recognize the symptoms associated withcohesive project teams.
Reducing isolation is also great by creatingwork-related connections outside the project team. Encouraging functionalconflict is also a great tactic by the project manager playing the role ofdevil’s advocate to encourage positive conflict can break up the mundaneroutine. Formal team building sessions are the last tactic that can helpidentify and eliminate dysfunctional norms and refocus the team’s attention onproject objectives.3.
a. It is importantfor project managers to resist changes to the project baseline because changescan undermine the baseline’s effectiveness as a mechanism for monitoringproject progress and tracing back delays and problems. Changes to the baselineshould only be made if it is clear the project will fail without the change, ifthe project will be significantly improved by the change, or if the customerwants the change and will pay for it. Changes to the baseline should not bemade to disguise poor performance on past of current work or after a workpackage or cost account is complete. This is a practice known as rubberbaseline. b.
Earned valuemeasures what was achieved for the resources used. It gives a clearer visualrepresentation of the project schedule and resource status than a simple planversus an actual system. This occurs because of the earned value systemincludes the time variable in measuring progress. The plan versus actual systemhas the ability to lead to false conclusions.4.
a. The statement showsflawed logic for not closing the project. The final word to go on or close theproject should be grounded on how the project continues to uphold theorganizational strategy. Fallen costs should not contribute into the choice,only for future risks and project benefits.b. I would assessall the variables that led up to us being in the above stated predicament anddocument in the lessons learned section of what shouldn’t have transpired. Thisallows a project team to learn from their mistakes to not fall in the samepitfall again.
Avoiding mistakes already made before in the past is criticalfor a project management team to reach optimal performance. 5. a.
The scope of theproject evolves over time through a series of incremental iterations. Eachiteration is a sub-project with the goal of creating workable product whichsatisfies one or more product features. At the end of each iteration theproduct is demonstrated to various stakeholders and adjustments are made. Eachnew iteration assumes the work of previous iterations and adds new capabilitiesto the evolving product. Three important advantages of incremental iterativedevelopment for creating new products are continuous integration, verification,and validation of the evolving product.
Also, frequent demonstration ofprogress which increases the likelihood that the end-product will satisfycustomer needs and early detection of defects and problems.b. The traditionalproject management approach relies heavily on predictive planning. The logic behindthat is that if you plan, execute, and take corrective action the project willbe successful. Project planning requires a fair amount of predictability bothin terms of project scope and technology. If you don’t know what you are tryingto obtain or how to obtain it then it is impossible to come up with a detailedplan to manage it.
The plan would constantly have to be re-planned as questionsregarding scope and technology become answered.