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AbstractInTthisTpaper,TITseekTtoTidentifyTwhichTfactorsTaffectTtheTSocio-EconomicTandTgenderTinequalityTregardingTtheTeducationTofTgirlsTandTboys,TasTwellTasofTwomenTandTmen,TacrossTtwoTcohortsTofTmarriedTwomenTinTBangladesh.TInTparticular,TITlookTatTtheTrelativeTimportanceTofTanTindividualTwoman’sTownTeducationalTbackgroundTandTthoseTofTherTspouseTandTotherTfamilyTmembersTinTshapingTherTattitudesTtowardTgenderTequalityTinTeducation.InequalityTisTlikeTanTepidemicTforTaTcountryTwhichTdestroysTaTcountry’sTdevelopmentTnotTonlyTforTaTgenerationTbutTalsoTforTaTlongTperiodTofTtime.TAmongTallTkindsTofTinequalitiesTgenderTinequalityTisTtheTextremeToneTasTitTaffectsTallTotherTsectors.TAsTwomenThasTcontributionTinTallTsectors.

TBringingTwomenTintoTtheTmainstreamTeconomicactivitiesTandTensuringTequalTopportunityTisToneTofTtheTmajorTtargetsTofTMillenniumTDevelopmentTGoalsTasTpursuedTbyTtheTgovernmentTofTBangladesh.IntroductionITaimTtoTaddTtoTthisTbodyTofTworkTbyTlookingTatTchangesTinTattitudesTregardingTsomeTaspectsTofTSocioEconomicTandTgenderTinequalityTdueTtoTeducationTinTBangladeshTduringTaTperiodTofTrapidTsocialTtransformation.TThisTworkTisTofTparticularTsignificanceTforaTnumberTofTreasons.TFirstTwhileTinTdevelopedTcountriesTwithThighqualityTdatasets thereThaveTbeenTmanyTanalysesTofTgenderTnormsTandTattitudes,TinTdevelopingTcountrieswithTlessThigh-qualityTdataTthereThaveTbeenTrelativelyTfewTstudiesTonTgenderTnorms,TandTthoseTthatThaveTbeenTconductedThaveTbeenTrestrictedTtoTsmallTsamplesTandTtoTtopicsTsuchTasTattitudesTregardingTreproductiveTdecision making,TsexTpreferencesTforTchildren,TandTviolenceTagainstTwomen.TInTaddition,TmostTofTtheTresearchTconductedTinTdevelopingTcountriesThasTfocusedTonTusingTattitudesTasTexplanatoryTvariablesTforTaTnumberTofToutcomes,TratherTthanTasToutcomeTvariablesTinTtheirTownTright.

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PreviousTresearchTonTeducationTandTgenderTnormsThasTprimarilyTfocusedTonTtheTquestionTofTwhetherTeducationTisTaTliberalizingTinfluenceTorTaTconstraintTonTattitudesTregardingTgenderTequality.TTheTresultsTofTtheseTstudiesTare,TtoTsayTtheTleast,TequivocalT(KaneT1995).TITsituateTmyTanalysisTonTchangingTattitudesTregardingTgirl’sTeducationTwithinTtheToverallTcontextTofTeducationalTexpansionTinTBangladesh,TandTtheTdefinitionsTofTsexrolesTandTexpectationsTinTtheTculture.TBecauseTITprovideTquantitativeTevidenceTonTtheTdeterminantsTofTgenderTeducationTnormsTinTBangladesh,TmyTworkTalsoTcomplementsTtherelatedTearlierTworkTbyTSchulerTandTcolleagues,TwhichTinvolvedTindepthTinterviewsTandTgroupTdiscussionsT(see,Te.g.

,TSchulerTetTal.T2006T(andTtheTreferencesTtherein)).BackgroundTBangladeshTprovidesTanTinterestingTcontextTforTanTanalysisTofTtheTchangesTinTgenderTnormsTregardingTeducation.TTheTgrowthTinTaccessTtoTeducation,TandTespeciallyTinTaccessTtoTsecondaryTeducationTforTgirls,TmayTbeTBangladesh’sTmostTdramaticTachievementTinTtheTlastTtwoTdecades.

TInTtheTareaTofTfemaleTsecondaryTeducation,TBangladeshTstandsToutTasTaTshiningTsuccessTstoryTamongTlow-incomeTcountries,TBangladesh’sTprogressTisTespeciallyTcommendableTbecauseTtheTgrowthTinTfemaleTeducationTtookTplaceTwithinTaTdemocraticTregime,TandTstartedTfromTaTveryTlowTbase. FigureT1:TEnrollmentTratesTinTEducationTable:T1TGrossTenrollmentTratesTofTboysTandTgirlsTbyTlevelTandTregion Primary (GradeT1-5) LowerTSec. (GradeT6-8) Secondary (GradeT9-10) HigherTSecondaryT(11-12) Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls BarisalT 93.9 93.6 55.4 58.9 45.8 58.1 44.7 35 ChittagongT 83.5 84.5 48.1 58.2 37.2 49.9 34.6 32.8 DhakaT 86.1 84.5 52.7 58.4 62.2 66.6 32.3 33.3 KhulnaT 96.1 99.5 60.7 66.9 58.3 71.5 39.3 36.2 RajshahiT 85.5 91.5 53.5 70.3 50.3 57.5 38.2 33.4 SylhetT 83.2 85.7 57.1 36.3 39.7 58 29.1 28.5  Source:TBANBEIST(GovernmentTofTBangladesh),T2015/016TheTgrowthTinTeducationTandTtheTaccompanyingTsocialTchangesThaveTprobablyTbeenTtheTmostTimportantTrecentTdevelopmentsTinTBangladesh,TbutTthereTareTothersTasTwell.TStartingTfromTaTveryTlowTbaseTofT9%,TfemaleTlaborTforceTparticipationTpickedTupTtoToverT22%TduringTtheTyearsT1993?2003.TWhile,TasTindicated,TtheTfemaleTlaborTparticipationThasTincreased,TtheTfemale-maleTgapTinTlaborTforceTparticipationT(LFP)ThasTalsoTincreasedTinTrelativeTtermsToverTtheTpastTfewTdecades:TInT1990TtheTLFPTwasT61.7%TforTfemalesTandT88.4TforTmales,TbutTbyT2011TitThadTdecreasedTtoT57.2%TforTfemalesTandT84.3%TforTmalesT(WDIT2013).TEvocativeTimagesTofThundredsTofTyoungTgirlsTwalkingTeveryTmorningTtoTtheTgarmentTfactoriesThaveTbeenTetchedTintoTtheTpopularTimaginationTasTaTmetaphorTforTprogress.TInfantTmortalityThasTdeclinedTfasterTinTBangladeshTthanTinTanyTotherTcountryTinTSouthTAsia.TTheTtotalTfertilityTrateTtodayTisTlessTthanTone-thirdTofTtheTrateTfourTdecadesTago,ThavingTdeclinedTfromTaboutT6.9TinT1971TtoTaboutT2.2TinT2011T(WDIT2013).TMeanwhile,TtheTmicrocreditTrevolutionTsweepingTtheTcountrysideThasTgivenTwomenTvisibilityTandTgreaterTstatus.TBetterTwaterTandTsanitationTfacilitiesThaveTreducedTtheTdrudgeryTexperiencedTbyTmothers,TwhoTnowThaveTtimeTforTotherTactivities.TAnTinformationTandTcommunicationTboomThasTresultedTfromTtheTwidespreadTavailabilityTofTradios,Ttelevisions,TandTmobileTphones.TTheTexpansionTofTruralTroadsTandTofTelectrificationThaveTenabledTmanyTpeopleTtoTfindTworkTbeyondTtraditionalTlow-productivityTcottageTindustries.TTheTavailabilityTofTmoreTsecureTmodesTofTtransportThasTalsoTgivenTpeopleTgreaterTmobility,TallowingTmoreTwomenTtoTmoveToutTofTtheirTvillagesTtoTtakeTjobsTinTtheTcityT(HossainTandTBoseT2004;TWorldTBankT2008).WhileTtheTprogressTdescribedTaboveTisTreal,TseriousTproblemsTremainTinTBangladesh,TandTnewTonesTareTsurfacing.TThus,TwhileTwomen’sTstatusThasTimprovedTdramaticallyTinTtheTlastTfewTdecades,TgenderTinequalitiesTpersistTinTmanyTareas,TsuchTasTinTaccessTtoTmarkets,TpoliticalTforums,TandThigh-techTservices.TMoreover,TthereTareTsharpTdisparitiesTbasedTonTanTindividual’sTplaceTofTresidence,TwealthTquintile,TandTethnicity.TTheTpracticeTofTdowryTpaymentsTisTonTtheTrise,TandTisToneTofTtheTreasonsTwhyTtheTaverageTgirlTisTmarriedToffTbyTtheTtimeTsheTisT15TyearsTold.ITdescribedTaboveTtheTextentTtoTwhichTeducationThasTexpandedTinTBangladesh.TITalsoTnotedTthatTeducationalTopportunitiesTforTgirlsThaveTchangedTtheTconservativeTmarriageTmarket,TasTincreasingTnumbers

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