(4) must be precise concerning its meaning,

(4) Continuity:Planning is a continuous and never-ending activity. One plan begets another plan in quick successions. Actually, a hierarchy of plans exists and operates in an institution at any time. (5) Flexibility:Planning leads to the adoption of a specific course of action and the rejection of other alternatives.

This reduces flexibility. But if future assumption upon which planning is based proves wrong, alternative courses of action need to be adopted. Thus, flexibility is to be ingrained in the planning process. (6) Unity:There should be consistency, integration and unity in long-term plans, medium-range plans, year’s plan, unit plan and lesson-plans as well as between plans of various departments or sections of an institution. Objectives provide a common focus for unifying plans.

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(7) Precision:Planning must be precise concerning its meaning, scope and nature. It must be intelligible and meaningful in terms of expected results. It must be realistic and based on SWOT analysis for the institution. (8) Pervasiveness:It’ is a pervasive activity covering the entire school or college with all its segments and every level of management (including teachers as classroom managers).


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