(1) such topics as team building, intergroup conflict

(1) To increase the level of trust and support among organizational members. (2) To increase the incidence of confrontation of organizational problems, both within groups and among groups, in contrast to “sweeping problems under the rug”.

(3) To create an environment in which authority of assigned role is augmented by authority based on knowledge and skills. (4) To increase the openness of communication laterally, vertically and diagonally. (5) To increase the level of personal enthusiasm and satisfaction in the organization. (6) To find synergistic solutions to problems with greater frequency. Synergistic solutions are creative solutions in which 2 + 2 equals more than 4, and through which all parties gain more through co-operation than through conflict. (7) To increase the level of self and group responsibility in planning and implementation. In attempts at accomplishing these objectives, OD training sessions are often organized around such topics as team building, intergroup conflict resolution, conducting interactive and interesting meetings, effective interpersonal communication, processes of personal growth, job enrichment, goal setting, role-playing, power equalization, sensitivity training and unblocking communication channels.

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A basic premise behind OD intervention theory is that the client system contains within itself the resources as well as the capability to change. Role of the agent of OD is to facilitate this change process by helping to identify areas that require change and to remove obstacles blocking change. There are two major orientations to OD: (A) Structural Orientation:Structural orientation to OD holds a formal organizational perspective towards change that is rooted in classical theory. When approaching a change task, a person with structural orientation is likely to involve himself or herself in activities that suggest modification of activities relating to goal setting, departmentalization, centralization and decentralization of decision-making, policy and rules, division of labour and reward and penalty system etc.

Thus, in structural orientation, the emphasis is on changing the structural characteristics of the formal organization. (B) Process Orientation:Process orientation to OD holds a socio-political group perspective of organizational behaviour and to involve themselves in such activities as team building, interpersonal dynamic, T-groups, conflict management and so on.

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