1. and Knowledge: The trainer should clearly tell,


Discovering or Identifying Training Needs:

A training program should be established only when it is felt that it would assist in the solution of specific operational problems. The most important step, in the first place, is to make a thorough analysis of the entire organization, its operations and manpower resources available in order to find out “The trouble spots” where training may be needed.

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2. Getting Ready for the Job:

Under this step, it is to be decided who is to be trained — the newcomer or the older employee, or the supervisory staff or all of them selected from different departments. The trainer has to be prepared for the job, for he is the key figure in the entire program.


Preparation of the Learner:

This step consists: (i) In putting the learner at ease; (ii) In stating the importance and ingredients of the job and its relationship to work flow; (iii) In explaining why he is being taught; (iv) In creating interest and encouraging questions. Finding out what the learner already knows about his job or other jobs; (v) In explaining the ‘why’ of the whole job and relating it to some other job, the worker already knows; (vi) In placing the learner as close to his normal working position as possible; and (vii) In familiarising him with the equipments, materials, tools and trade terms.

4. Presentation of Operation and Knowledge:

The trainer should clearly tell, show, illustrate and question in order to put over the new knowledge and operations. The learner should be told of the sequence of the entire job and why each step in its performance is necessary.

Instructions should be given clearly, completely and patiently; there should be an emphasis on key points and one point should be explained at a time. For this purpose, the trainer should demonstrate or make use of audio-visual aids and should ask the trainee to repeat the operations. He should also be encouraged to ask questions in order to indicate that he really knows and understands the job.

5. Performance Try out:

Under this, the trainee is asked to go through the job several times slowly, explaining him each step.

Mistakes are corrected and if necessary, some complicated steps are done for the trainee the first time. The trainee is asked to do the job, gradually building up skill and speed. As soon as the trainee demonstrates that he can do the job in a right way, he is put on his own, but not abandoned.



This step is undertaken with a view to testing the effectiveness of training efforts. This consists in: (a) Putting a trainee “on his own” (b) Checking frequently to be sure that he has followed; instructions; and (c) Tapering off extra supervision and close follow-up until he is qualified to work with normal supervision.


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