6.15. follow and adhere Qatari research governance

6.15. Healthcare Research6
6.15.1. Healthcare professionals shall take part in research, which is helps in improving the health of individuals and the population as a whole.
6.15.2. Healthcare professionals shall ensure the research protocol has been approved by a properly constituted human research ethics committee recognized by MOPH.
6.15.3. Healthcare professionals shall follow and adhere Qatari research governance guidelines set by Ministry of Public Health.
6.15.4. Healthcare professionals shall act with honesty and integrity and ensure the research is not contrary to the participants’ interests.
6.15.5. Healthcare professionals shall adhere to the requirements on informed consent.
6.15.6. Healthcare professionals shall seek advice when research involves children or adults who are unable to provide informed consent to ensure there are appropriate safeguards in place. This includes ensuring that a person empowered to make decisions on behalf of the participant have given informed consent or that there is other lawful authority to proceed.
6.15.7. Healthcare professionals shall follow all aspects of the research protocol, including reporting adverse events promptly and any changes to the protocol.
6.15.8. Healthcare professionals shall accept or issue only those payments approved by a research ethics committee.
6.15.9. Healthcare professionals shall report evidence of fraud or misconduct in research to an appropriate person, committee or authority.
6.15.10. Healthcare professionals shall disclose to the participant any financial benefit they gain by the research.

6.15. Healthcare Research6
6.15.1. Healthcare professionals shall take part in research, which is helps in improving the health of individuals and the population as a whole.
6.15.2. Healthcare professionals shall ensure the research protocol has been approved by a properly constituted human research ethics committee recognized by MOPH.
6.15.3. Healthcare professionals shall follow and adhere Qatari research governance guidelines set by Ministry of Public Health.
6.15.4. Healthcare professionals shall act with honesty and integrity and ensure the research is not contrary to the participants’ interests.
6.15.5. Healthcare professionals shall adhere to the requirements on informed consent.
6.15.6. Healthcare professionals shall seek advice when research involves children or adults who are unable to provide informed consent to ensure there are appropriate safeguards in place. This includes ensuring that a person empowered to make decisions on behalf of the participant have given informed consent or that there is other lawful authority to proceed.
6.15.7. Healthcare professionals shall follow all aspects of the research protocol, including reporting adverse events promptly and any changes to the protocol.
6.15.8. Healthcare professionals shall accept or issue only those payments approved by a research ethics committee.
6.15.9. Healthcare professionals shall report evidence of fraud or misconduct in research to an appropriate person, committee or authority.
6.15.10. Healthcare professionals shall disclose to the participant any financial benefit they gain by the research.

6.2.4 Ignition Systems
Principles of Magneto Ignition
In any ignition system the basic requirement is to deliver an intense electrical current to the spark plugs, so to ignite the fuel/air mixture within each cylinder. Since the valves are closed during ignition, the pistons are forced down the cylinder by the rapidly expanding gasses, producing work and in turn rotating the crankshaft and thus the propeller.
Construction and Function
A magneto is simply a permanent magnet that rotates within a conductor and coil to generate an alternating electrical current. This current is completely independent of the aircraft’s electrical system and does not rely on battery power, instead it is self-exciting. The magneto, which can be mechanically or engine driven, generates sufficient electrical energy to the spark plugs in each cylinder through the distributor – Igniting at just the right time and in the correct sequence. This takes place when the starter is engaged and the crankshaft begins to turn and it continues to operate whenever the crankshaft is rotating.

The distributor, which consists of a rotor that spins inside the non-conductive distributor block and makes intermitted contact with terminals embedded within the block. Each terminal is connected to a spark plug. The rotor (carrying a high voltage charge from the magneto circuit) comes in contact with each terminal, and the current is conducted to the applicable plug in the correct sequence.

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A dual ignition system with two individual magnetos is what is commonly used in small aircraft these days. Separate sets of wires and spark plugs improve the redundancy and reliability in the ignition system. Each magneto operates independently to fire its own spark plug within their allotted cylinders. Ignition of the fuel-air mixture is therefore improved with dual spark ignition and results in a marginally higher power output. In the event of one magneto failing, the other will be unaffected, improving pilot safety considerably. This redundancy allows the engine to continue somewhat normal operation, although engine RPM can be expected to be slightly reduced. Understandably resulting in a lower power output. Operation of the magnetos are controlled in the cockpit through various ignition switch positions:
OFF.
R (right)
L (left)
BOTH / START
Purpose and Principle of Impulse Coupling
A spark is produced in the plugs because the magneto spins a magnet inside an iron coil core. This generates an alternating current within the coil and produces up to 20 000 volts which are used to fire the spark plugs. In order for sparks to be effective, the magnet needs to be rotating at speeds of at least 500 R.P.M. Anything below this results in weaker sparks and reduces engine start-up and running efficiency. Incorrect timing can lead to a premature power stroke known as kick-back. This results from normal magneto timing set for a higher R.P.M settings. Ultimately, this can lead to the crankshaft being forced in the wrong direction. The ignition therefore needs to be delayed on startup (during low R.P.M operations).

This start-up problem is solved through the use of Impulse coupling. An impulse coupling device works in two ways. Spring weights and a spring-loaded coupling are used initially to prevent the magneto from turning. Once the spring is fully wound it releases the magnet which then spins at a greater velocity. The benefits of this are two-fold.
First, it accelerates the rotation of the magnet producing a higher voltage (better spark) and second the ignition spark is delayed during start-up. Once the engine is running, the centrifugal force of the flyweights ensures the impulse coupling is disconnected and does not cause interference during normal operations.

Serviceability Checks
The spark plugs are a useful indicator in determining the engine condition. During each Mandatory Periodic Inspection (M.P.I) the plugs are removed for inspection and testing. Normal engine operation is indicated by a light grey coating of the end of the plugs. Excessive wear may indicate detonation. Black sooty-like deposits will appear in cases where mixture has not been sufficiently leaned, whereas engines operated with too lean a mixture will leave behind white powdery traces. Black oily deposits suggest excessive oil consumption and if hard brittle deposits are found lodged in the spark plug gap, it means fuel lead is not being removed during combustion. If disregarded, these deposits can build up sufficiently causing the plugs to ground without a spark. This often results in a “mag drop” which can be identified by a rough running engine and an excessive loss in R.P.M. When this is detected on the ground during magneto checks, aborted the flight immediately.
Operational Procedures
The ignition system can be identified as defective or damaged during the pre-takeoff run-up checks. This is done by observing the reduction in R.P.M that occurs between when the LEFT and RIGHT ignition are selected individually. The maximum allowable reduction and ‘total drop’ limits are listed in the POH. If the engine stops running when switched to one magneto or if the rpm drop exceeds the allowable limit, the aircraft should not be flown until the system is serviced and the problem is corrected.
Possible causes of an unacceptable mag drop could be the result of fouled spark plugs, damaged wires between the magneto and the spark plugs, or incorrect timing. “No drop” in R.P.M is also abnormal and should be considered cause for concern. In this case, the aircraft should not be flown and sent in for immediate inspection.
“No drop” is an indication that one of the magnetos is not grounding and can result in a premature start, by simply turning the propeller by hand. Even with the battery and master switches OFF, the engine can fire and turn over if the ignition switch is left ON, residual fuel is in the lines and the propeller is moved. This happens because the magneto is self-exciting. If this occurs, the only way to stop the engine is to move the mixture lever to the Idle Cut-Off (I.C.O) position. The system should immediately be checked by a qualified AMO. To avoid a premature start, ensure the engine is stopped by moving the mixture to the I.C.O position thereby draining the fuel lines, the magneto switch is turned to the OFF position after each flight and be extremely cautious when in the vicinity of the propeller. 126111046822100

6.2.4 Ignition Systems
Principles of Magneto Ignition
In any ignition system the basic requirement is to deliver an intense electrical current to the spark plugs, so to ignite the fuel/air mixture within each cylinder. Since the valves are closed during ignition, the pistons are forced down the cylinder by the rapidly expanding gasses, producing work and in turn rotating the crankshaft and thus the propeller.
Construction and Function
A magneto is simply a permanent magnet that rotates within a conductor and coil to generate an alternating electrical current. This current is completely independent of the aircraft’s electrical system and does not rely on battery power, instead it is self-exciting. The magneto, which can be mechanically or engine driven, generates sufficient electrical energy to the spark plugs in each cylinder through the distributor – Igniting at just the right time and in the correct sequence. This takes place when the starter is engaged and the crankshaft begins to turn and it continues to operate whenever the crankshaft is rotating.

The distributor, which consists of a rotor that spins inside the non-conductive distributor block and makes intermitted contact with terminals embedded within the block. Each terminal is connected to a spark plug. The rotor (carrying a high voltage charge from the magneto circuit) comes in contact with each terminal, and the current is conducted to the applicable plug in the correct sequence.

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A dual ignition system with two individual magnetos is what is commonly used in small aircraft these days. Separate sets of wires and spark plugs improve the redundancy and reliability in the ignition system. Each magneto operates independently to fire its own spark plug within their allotted cylinders. Ignition of the fuel-air mixture is therefore improved with dual spark ignition and results in a marginally higher power output. In the event of one magneto failing, the other will be unaffected, improving pilot safety considerably. This redundancy allows the engine to continue somewhat normal operation, although engine RPM can be expected to be slightly reduced. Understandably resulting in a lower power output. Operation of the magnetos are controlled in the cockpit through various ignition switch positions:
OFF.
R (right)
L (left)
BOTH / START
Purpose and Principle of Impulse Coupling
A spark is produced in the plugs because the magneto spins a magnet inside an iron coil core. This generates an alternating current within the coil and produces up to 20 000 volts which are used to fire the spark plugs. In order for sparks to be effective, the magnet needs to be rotating at speeds of at least 500 R.P.M. Anything below this results in weaker sparks and reduces engine start-up and running efficiency. Incorrect timing can lead to a premature power stroke known as kick-back. This results from normal magneto timing set for a higher R.P.M settings. Ultimately, this can lead to the crankshaft being forced in the wrong direction. The ignition therefore needs to be delayed on startup (during low R.P.M operations).

This start-up problem is solved through the use of Impulse coupling. An impulse coupling device works in two ways. Spring weights and a spring-loaded coupling are used initially to prevent the magneto from turning. Once the spring is fully wound it releases the magnet which then spins at a greater velocity. The benefits of this are two-fold.
First, it accelerates the rotation of the magnet producing a higher voltage (better spark) and second the ignition spark is delayed during start-up. Once the engine is running, the centrifugal force of the flyweights ensures the impulse coupling is disconnected and does not cause interference during normal operations.

Serviceability Checks
The spark plugs are a useful indicator in determining the engine condition. During each Mandatory Periodic Inspection (M.P.I) the plugs are removed for inspection and testing. Normal engine operation is indicated by a light grey coating of the end of the plugs. Excessive wear may indicate detonation. Black sooty-like deposits will appear in cases where mixture has not been sufficiently leaned, whereas engines operated with too lean a mixture will leave behind white powdery traces. Black oily deposits suggest excessive oil consumption and if hard brittle deposits are found lodged in the spark plug gap, it means fuel lead is not being removed during combustion. If disregarded, these deposits can build up sufficiently causing the plugs to ground without a spark. This often results in a “mag drop” which can be identified by a rough running engine and an excessive loss in R.P.M. When this is detected on the ground during magneto checks, aborted the flight immediately.
Operational Procedures
The ignition system can be identified as defective or damaged during the pre-takeoff run-up checks. This is done by observing the reduction in R.P.M that occurs between when the LEFT and RIGHT ignition are selected individually. The maximum allowable reduction and ‘total drop’ limits are listed in the POH. If the engine stops running when switched to one magneto or if the rpm drop exceeds the allowable limit, the aircraft should not be flown until the system is serviced and the problem is corrected.
Possible causes of an unacceptable mag drop could be the result of fouled spark plugs, damaged wires between the magneto and the spark plugs, or incorrect timing. “No drop” in R.P.M is also abnormal and should be considered cause for concern. In this case, the aircraft should not be flown and sent in for immediate inspection.
“No drop” is an indication that one of the magnetos is not grounding and can result in a premature start, by simply turning the propeller by hand. Even with the battery and master switches OFF, the engine can fire and turn over if the ignition switch is left ON, residual fuel is in the lines and the propeller is moved. This happens because the magneto is self-exciting. If this occurs, the only way to stop the engine is to move the mixture lever to the Idle Cut-Off (I.C.O) position. The system should immediately be checked by a qualified AMO. To avoid a premature start, ensure the engine is stopped by moving the mixture to the I.C.O position thereby draining the fuel lines, the magneto switch is turned to the OFF position after each flight and be extremely cautious when in the vicinity of the propeller. 126111046822100

6.4. Practice Professionally2,9,10
6.4.1. Healthcare Professionals shall consistently demonstrate openness, honesty and ethical in their professional practice.
6.4.2. Healthcare Professionals shall always act promptly to put matters right, if that is possible to ensure patient safety.
6.4.3. When care plan does not go as intended, Healthcare Professionals have a responsibility to be open and honest in their communication with the patient/legal guardian.
6.4.4. Healthcare Professionals shall maintain appropriate boundaries and not abuse their professional position to establish or pursue a physical or other inappropriate relationship with anybody under their care. This includes those close to the patient/client such as their caregivers, guardian or spouse or anyone under their supervision such as a student Healthcare Professionals or colleagues.
6.4.5. Healthcare Professionals shall avoid expressing personal beliefs including political, spiritual, religious or moral beliefs to patients/legal guardian or their caregivers in ways that exploit their vulnerability or that are likely to cause them distress.
6.4.6. Shall work collaboratively within health care teams, and respect the skills, expertise and contributions of colleagues.
6.4.7. When working as a member of a team, they shall communicate effectively and disseminate knowledge, skill and expertise as required for the benefit and safety of patients.
6.4.8. Shall support colleagues who appropriately and professionally notify circumstances of unsafe and unethical practices.
6.4.9. Healthcare Professionals shall understand their duty to support the community to deal in a sound manner with the reality of disease condition and its consequences.
6.4.10. Should give priority to the investigation and treatment of patients solely on the basis of clinical need.
6.4.11. Should respect the patient’s right to informed consent and to seeking a second opinion regarding the care they receive.
6.4.12. Where there is a suspicion or issue of child abuse or any other form of abuse or medicolegal case, Healthcare Professionals shall report such suspicions and to comply with Qatari regulatory requirements.
6.4.13. Should ensure that professional status is not used in the promotion of commercial products or services and that the status of being a Healthcare Professionals is not used for personal gain or any form of rewards / incentives that are not part of the stipulated conditions of his/her employment. Should not be taking advantage of privileged position for personal gain.
6.4.14. Should have a responsibility to conduct themselves according to the Qatar laws and regulations as well as Islamic principals in what they do, and in their interaction with patients receiving care as well as with families, communities and other members of the health care team.

6.5. Privacy ; Confidentiality2
6.5.1. Healthcare Professionals shall ensure patient medical/personal information is kept private and confidential (subject to disclosures necessary for medical care and administration) ; be viewed merely by the direct caregiver or authorized persons. Upon patient request family member or nominate a support person to be allowed during examination and discussion of their case.
6.5.2. To ensure all required steps are taken to protect unauthorized access, use or accidental disclosure of your patient’s information.
6.5.3. Shall respect the patient’s wish regarding the disclosure of information to family members and others.
6.5.4. Healthcare Professionals shall always maintain privacy ; respect during physical examination ; treatment.
6.5.5. Healthcare Professionals shall disclose any information regarding patients only with informed consent or as required by a court of law or appropriate constitutional authority.
6.5.6. To ensure use of social media/other online platforms is consistent with the ethical and statutory obligations to protect patient information confidentiality and privacy.
6.5.7. Healthcare Professionals shall consistently maintain confidentiality of information about colleagues ; the organization.

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6.6. Ensure Safety
6.6.1. Healthcare professionals must practice in a safe manner; do not use any sedatives or other substances that may alter a capacity to practice safely at all times. In a situation where their health threatens their capacity to practice safely and competently, they have a responsibility to seek assistance to address their health needs.
6.6.2. Shall conform to the national legislation in relation to self-prescribing. They should not treat themselves, other than in the way that any other member of the community would undertake self-treatment.
6.6.3. Healthcare professionals shall protect patients, community, peer group and themselves by being immunized against communicable diseases.
6.6.4. Healthcare professionals should ensure they follow
6.6.4.1. If he/she knows or suspects that they have a health condition that could adversely affect their judgment or performance or could harm he/she shall consult a suitably qualified health professional.
6.6.4.2. He/she will follow the health-professional’s advice about investigations, treatment and changes to practice if necessary. They will not rely on their own assessment of the risk they possess to patients and colleagues.
6.6.4.3. Shall act to identify and minimize the risk to themselves and patients. They shall work with other members of the team to promote a healthcare environment that is conducive to safe, therapeutic and ethical practice.
6.6.5. Shall maintain personal safety and that of colleagues where necessary when caring for patients. If a patient poses a risk to the health or safety of the health professional, necessary steps to be taken to protect themselves before investigating or providing treatment. However, he/she shall not refuse to treat a patient who poses such a risk.
6.6.6. Healthcare Professionals observes/find the environment that could compromise standard of practice they shall report the to a supervisor, appropriate committee or if need to regulatory authority.
6.6.7. To ensure safety in an emergency, in or outside the work setting, he/she has a duty to provide care within the scope of practice.

6.7. Informed Consent2
6.7.1. Healthcare professionals shall obtain informed consent before they provide patients with treatment or care.
6.7.2. Healthcare Professionals must provide care in life threatening / emergency situations where treatment is necessary to preserve life without patient consent if they are unable to give it, provided the professional has the ability to demonstrate they are acting in the patient’s best interest.
6.7.3. Healthcare Professionals shall ensure patients participate in decisions about their care and treatment, including the right to refuse treatment (to the extent permitted by regulations). The patient’s consent or refusal must be documented in the patient’s medical record.
6.7.4. Healthcare Professionals to ensure that all patients receive precise and honest information about their condition and therefore make informed decisions about their own health care.
6.7.5. When obtaining informed consent, Healthcare Professionals shall ensure followings:
6.7.5.1. Given by a competent patient / legal guardian / appropriate source
6.7.5.2. Given voluntarily,
6.7.5.3. Patient is informed about risk, benefits, alternative, likelihood of success, possible complication and treatment plan in a language which patient is able to comprehend and
6.7.5.4. Shall document all discussions regarding consent in the patient/client care record.

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