577532544704011131554032259951084325753UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS COLLEGE OF NURSING España Blvd

577532544704011131554032259951084325753UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS COLLEGE OF NURSING
España Blvd., Manila, Philippines 1015
Factors Affecting Clinical Competence Among Nursing Students
A Thesis Proposal
Presented to the
College of Nursing
University of Santo Tomas
In Partial Fulfillment
Of the Requirements of the Degree
Bachelor of Science in Nursing
Hui, Robin Carlo U.

Inanuran, Myvy G.

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Ipurong, Pauline Kaye V.

Jardin, Roaine E.

Asso . Prof. Rouena S. Villarama MAEd., R.N.

Thesis Adviser
Les Paul M. Valdez MAN, RN.

Research Lecturer
May 2018
Context of Problematizing
Competency has been characterized as a level of performance exhibiting a powerful use of knowledge, abilities and judgment to carry out procedures securely and efficiently without the need for immediate supervision (Nehrir, Vanaki, Nouri, Khademolhosseini, & Ebadi, 2016). According to Benner (1984), competence is apparent when a nurse develops the ability to cope and manage the many eventualities in the real world of nursing through a person’s capacity to integrate knowledge, skills and attitudes in a variety of clinical situations (Gonczi, 1994). Competence among nurses is shown to be important in the quality of nurse-patient interaction (Shatell, 2004) which influences the patients’ safety, health status, morbidity, and mortality (Kendall-Gallagher, 2009). Similarly, nursing students require profoundly particular competencies to precisely determine patients’ states and foresee and adapt to the issues that may happen amid nursing care (Nehrir et al., 2016). There is lack of capable experienced nurses worldwide (Sportsman, 2010). Low competence among nurses leads to frustration, and job dissatisfaction to the nurse (Kovner, Brewer, Fairchild, Poornima, Kim ; Djukic, 2007) and prompts expanded rate of mortality in patients treated in hospitals (Gardul, Nilsson, Florin, Leksell, Lepp, Lindholmh, Nordströmc, Theander, Wilde-Larsson, Carlsson, ; Johansson, 2014).
Today, more than ever, the healthcare industry is challenged to recruit competent and experienced nurses. In addition, members of the healthcare team expect nursing graduates to be ready to execute wide range of functions and have their learning provide safe care. However, newly qualified healthcare providers do not meet the desires for passage level clinical judgment and the highest level of clinical competence (Nehrir, 2016). Nurse educators, for their part, recognize the expanded interest for competent nurses in the present healthcare environment and need for the development of competent practice. However, lack of nurses’ clinical competence, unpredictability of international healthcare systems and the high level demand of competencies in the nursing profession pose significant challenges and considered as major issues in the contingence of quality nursing care for healthcare systems all over the world (Aiken, Clarke, Cheung, Sloane, & Silber, 2003; Berkow, Virkstis, Stewart, & Conway, 2008; World Health Organization, 2000; Tan, Chan, Subramaniam & Ping, 2018; Liou & Cheng, 2014; Mudallal, Saleh, Modallal & Abdel-Rahman, 2017). The current evidences showed a gap between the concept and practice (Klein, & Fowles, 2009; Cave, 1994; Boyatzis, 1982 & Spouse, 2001). Further, several studies cite various factors that may influence clinical competence of a student nurse which includes critical thinking skills, caring behavior, clinical anxiety and clinical confidence (Usher et al., 2017; Aupia et al., 2017; Chen et al., 2017; Gurkova et al., 2018; LaMartina et al., 2014; Pai et al., 2017; Chang et al., 2011).
To produce competent, confident, critical thinker with the ability to lead, to question, and to be questioned is needed in nursing education (Bifftu, Dachew, Tiruneh, Kelkay & Bayu, 2016). There is a paucity of research exploring the impact of factors such as critical thinking, caring behavior, clinical competence and clinical anxiety on the clinical competence among nursing students. Results of the study will shed more light and generate implications on how instruction or nursing curriculum can be enhanced to develop clinically competent student nurses.

2. Research Questions
2.1 Miller’s Prism of Clinical Competence
Fig. 1 Miller’s Prism of Clinical Competence

used with permission from Acad. Med
Miller’s Prism of Clinical Competence adapted by Mehay and Burns (2009), based originally on Miller’s Pyramid (1990) serves as the framework of the study. Miller’s pyramid (1990) is a method for ranking clinical competence both in educational settings and in the work environment. As a framework, it recognizes learning at the lower levels and action in the higher levels. It contends to genuinely know whether students are accomplishing what needs to be accomplished. It is composed of four levels. The bottom part of the pyramid is the “Knows” section which is the basis for the performance of the skills. “Knows how” is the second level of pyramid, these are learning related skill; how knowledge is employed. The third level, “Shows”, demonstrates the skill performance objective; tests competency through appraisals in simulations, lab practical, and other controlled circumstances that enables the learner to exhibit capacities. Finally, the top of the pyramid is known as “Does”, perform in independent clinical practice.
2.2 Watson’s Theory of Caring
The theory of Watson’s Human Caring emphasizes the human and nursing paradigm (Fawcett, 2005). It states that an individual cannot be healed as an object and contends that a person is a part of his/her self, the environment, nature, and the bigger universe. In this theory, the environment is characterized as comfortable, delightful, and peaceful (Lukaose, 2011; Watson, 2009; Watson, 2007) and that caring is the ethical perfect that involves the mind-body-soul connection. Watson indicates that in a holistic way to deal with caring for a human, there are mind-body-soul sub-dimensions, all of which mirror the entire as the whole is unique in relation to her/his sub-dimensions (Jesse, 2006; Fawcett, 2005; Cara, 2003). Nursing is classified as a humanitarian science and portrayed as a profession that performs individual, logical, moral, and aesthetic practice. Watson’s theory of Human Caring expects to guarantee a stable and synchronize amongst wellbeing and illness experiences of a man.
2.3 Competence
Competence within nursing is described as possessing theoretical and clinical knowledge, skills, values and attitudes, and incorporating psychomotor and problem-solving abilities, with an aim of providing safe and quality care for patients (Bartolone, 2008; Pijl-Zieber et al., 2014; Zieber & Sedgewick, 2018 & Wu et al., 2015). Wangensteen et al. (2012) stated that newly graduated nurses were least competent in evaluating outcomes and in activities for developing nursing care. Nursing students clearly do not have the prolonged and stable exposure to clinical environments that Benner regarded as central to the development of competence (Gallagher, Smith, & Ousey, 2012). More specifically it is in preparation for their initial entry to practice that the approach to competence assessment of student nurses becomes problematic. Many studies have used different instruments to measure self-reported competence among nursing students (Klein, 2006; Cowan et al., 2005; Cheng & Liou, 2013; Löfmark et al., 2006; Lauder et al., 2008; Lakanmaa, 2012; Wangensteen et al., 2012). However, it would be of great interest to relate the overall high self-reported competence NPC scores to theoretical knowledge and clinical tests. (Gardulf, et al., 2015).

2.4 Critical Thinking Behavior
Studies have shown that nurses are able to achieve a high level of competence if they possess a high level of critical thinking ability (Chang, Chang, Kuo, Yang & Chou, 2011; Park & Kim, 2009). Yurdanur (2016) emphasized that in order to strengthen clinical competence in nurses, the development and enhancement of critical thinking should be emphasized at the college level and nurses should be empowered to make a clinical decision. The cognitive ability involving knowledge and critical thinking skills is essential for the multifaceted roles of the registered professional nurse in complex and varied health care delivery environments (Pai, Eng, & Ko, 2013); the competence of nursing students (Kajander-Unkuri, Salminen, Saarikoski, Suhonen & Leino-Kilpi, 2013); and their adequacy in learning (Zieber & Sedgewick, 2018). Nurses with good critical thinking skills can independently and carefully assess the process of information throughout the entire nursing process (Chan, 2013). In contrast, lack of adequate knowledge and skill along with lack of mental and psychological preparation interrupts the learning and patient caregiving processes (Jamshidi, Molazem, Sharif, Torabizadeh, & Kalyani, 2016); the quality, sufficiency and efficiency of service and the professionalism, autonomy and authority in the nursing profession (Arli, Bakan, Ozturk, Erisik, & Yildirim, 2017). When students develop clinical reasoning skills using critical thinking, they are more likely to make a difficult transformation from the role of the registered nurse to that of the advanced practice nurse, resulting in improved clinical competence (Perez, 2014). Thus, based on the literatures above, a hypothesis was made:
H1: High levels of critical thinking leads to high levels of clinical competence.

2.5 Caring Behavior
The essence of nursing is caring (McCance, McKenna, & Boore, 1999; Zamanzadeh, Valizadeh, Azimzadeh, Aminaie & Yousefzadeh, 2014) which provides healthcare facilities to the patients, improving human life, and provision of health care (Modic, Siedlecki et al. 2014). According to Watson (2005), a nurse must possess and maintain a helping–trusting, authentic caring relationship with their patient in order to promote healing and health. Larson (1981) defined nurse caring behavior as the act, conduct, and mannerism enacted by professional nurses which convey to the patient’s concern, safety, and attention. Additionally, Thayer-Bacon suggested that, with the absence of caring, one cannot be considered to be a good critical thinker (Pai et al.,2013). This implies that caring motivates students to listen and consider patient demands. Thus, enables them to have a foundation for critical thinking and the provision of high-quality care. However, critical thinking does not guarantee quality nursing care, instead, it offers a better opportunity to accomplish such care (Yueh Chen, Chi Chang ; Chu Pai, 2017). Lack of nurse caring behavior in hospitals leads to negative patient outcomes including patient dissatisfaction, anxiety and diminished coping abilities of patients (Nightingale, Spiby, Sheen ; Sladea, 2018; Abdullah, Kousar, Azhar, Waqas ; Gilani, 2017). Several studies revealed that caring behavior has a positive effect on critical thinking (Pai et al., 2013; Zimmerman ; Phillips, 2000; Sy et al., 2017). Similarly, a moderately positive improvement was observed in the behaviors and attitudes of students during nurse–patient interaction (Arli et al., 2017). However, there is a gap in the understanding of the dimensions of critical thinking to caring which is the core of the nursing profession. (Arli, Bakan, Ozturk, Erisik ; Yildirim, 2017). Thus, a hypothesis was proposed:
H2: Caring behavior positively affects critical thinking.

2.6 Clinical Anxiety
Anxiety is a subjective inclination where people feel awkward or anxious and may stress over something that may, or may not, occur later on (Ko Sun, Long, Tseng, Man Huang, Hui You ; Ying Chiang, 2015). This may impair cognitive performance when demands exceed the resources to cope or enhance learning (Joëls, Pu, Wiegert, Oitzl ; Krugers, 2006) and may affect the process of learning (Al-Ghareeb et al., 2017). Research revealed that students who are critical thinkers are more likely to possess low level of state anxiety (Suliman ; Halabi, 2007). Moreover, student nurses and newly graduates experience anxiety as a result of feeling incompetent, insufficient learning of the real concept of nursing care and lack of professional nursing skills, knowledge, and experience to take care of various patients in the clinical setting (Beecroft, Hernandez ; Reid, 2008; Sun, K. et al., 2015; Sharif ; Masoumi, 2005). Pai et al., (2017) revealed that students with higher anxiety score reported poor clinical care performance. However, Cheng et al. (2014) stated that there is no relationship between clinical stress and competence, and could possibly be explained by other reasons. Additionally, there is a minimal evidence concerning the student’s physical and mental nervousness reactions, and the impact of uneasiness on clinical performance. (Al-Ghareeb et al., 2017). Thus, two hypotheses were suggested:
H3: Critical thinking is negatively influenced by clinical anxiety.

H4: Clinical anxiety negatively influences clinical competence.

2.7 Clinical Confidence
Confidence level reflects personal self-efficacy and sustains the nurses’ perception of the ability to successfully accomplish a particular task or activity (Campo, McNulty, Sabatini, ; Fitzpatrick, 2008; Fry ; MacGregor, 2014). Professional competence and con?dence have been described as inherently aligned within nursing education as both are involved in developing professional practice and identity (Crooks, Carpio, Brown, Black, O’Mara & Noesgaard, 2005; Farrand, McMullan, Jowett & Humphreys, 2006). Similarly, an exploration of expert specialist nurses’ proposed a positive relationship between learning and re?ection processes and development of con?dence on specialty nursing areas (Currie, 2008). Confidence level among nursing students is an important factor to enable them to carry out their duties competently in the clinical area (Panduragan, Abdullah, Hassan, ; Mat, 2011). Students who perceived that they were competent also perceived themselves as confident (Kim, Lee, Eudey ; Dea, 2014). Lack of confidence in student nurses can interfere with their ability to acquire new knowledge and tackle difficult situations (Moonaghi et al., 2015). Development of confidence facilitated by the process of nursing education may help student nurses succeed in their clinical goals (Sharif ; Masoumi, 2005; Lundberg, 2008). Based on the literature reviews, a hypothesis was formulated:
H5: Clinical confidence positively impacts clinical competence
3. Research Model
In sight of the foregoing background, the researchers developed a model that includes factors affecting clinical competence developed in previous studies as shown in Fig. 2.

The study aims to answer the main question and the following sub-questions:
How do factors such as critical thinking, caring behavior, clinical confidence, clinical anxiety influence clinical competence among nursing students?
How does critical thinking influence clinical competence among nursing students?
What is the impact of caring behavior on critical thinking?
How does clinical anxiety affect critical thinking?
How is clinical competence affected by clinical anxiety?
How is clinical competence influenced by clinical confidence?
Specifically, the objectives of this study are the following:
To describe how critical thinking affects the clinical competence among Nursing Students
To distinguish the effect of caring behavior on critical thinking.

To ascertain the impact of clinical anxiety on critical thinking.

To characterize the influence of clinical anxiety on clinical competence
To analyze how clinical competence is affected by clinical confidence

Figure 2.

The model is composed of five factors which includes critical thinking, caring behavior, clinical confidence, clinical anxiety, and clinical competence. On the one hand, clinical anxiety and caring behavior affects critical thinking. Clinical competence, on the other hand, is influenced by clinical anxiety, critical thinking, and clinical confidence.
4. Methods
4.1 Research Design
This quantitative study profess to determine on how factors such as critical thinking, caring behavior, clinical confidence, and clinical anxiety affect the clinical competence of nursing students. To achieve the overall intent of the study, a descriptive, correlational design will be used. Descriptive design will be used to obtain information concerning the current status of the phenomena to describe “what exists” with respect to variables or conditions in a situation. The methods involved range from the survey which describes the status quo and the correlation which investigates the relationship between variables to determine changes over time (Posinasetti, 2014).

4.2 Selection and Study Site
The researchers will use purposive random sampling on the respondents from a College of Nursing, one of the Center of Excellence in Nursing Education in the Philippines. The respondents will be chosen based on the following inclusion criteria: A 4th year nursing student who has been studying in the chosen college since first year.
4.3 Data Measures
The following tools will be used in the conduct of the study:
A 36-item Holistic Nursing Competence Scale developed by Takase and Teraoka (2011) will be used to measure the clinical competence among nursing students. This scale provides measure of the general aptitude and nursing competence and includes five dimensions: general aptitude, staff education and management, ethically oriented practice, nursing care in a team, and professional development.
Nursing Anxiety and Self-Confidence with Clinical Decision-Making Scale (NASC-CDM) by White (2011) will be used to assess self-confidence and anxiety among nursing students. This scale is a 27-item questionnaire in which participants rate their level of agreement with each statement related to both anxiety and self-confidence on a six-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (not at all) to 6 (totally).
Caring Behavior Inventory (CBI) developed by Wolf et al. (2006) will be used to measure the caring behavior among nursing students. 42 statements based on Likert’s six-point scale (never, almost never, occasionally, usually, almost always and always) is included. It consists of 5 sub-scales:”to pay respect to others”, “to ensure realization of humanistic concerns”, “positive relation and attitudes”, “professional knowledge and skill”, and “to pay attention to others experience”.
Critical thinking among nursing students will be evaluated using a 86-item Watson Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal developed by Watson and Glaser (1937). This assessment evaluates how to construct inferences and logical assumptions and to reason with supported arguments critically. Its five exercises cover Drawing Inferences, Recognizing Assumptions, Argument Evaluation, Deductive Reasoning, and Logical Interpretation. However, due to its lengthiness, the researchers plans to modify this tool and will just include the most essential items. Modified tool will be subjected to pilot testing to ensure that validity and reliability are still maintained.

4.4 Validity and Reliability
The questionnaire will be validated by experts and as needed will be pilot-tested to a group of students. Students who will be for pilot testing will be different from the actual data gathering. Cronbach’s alpha will be determined for reliability or internal consistency testing.

4.5 Data Collection and Ethical Consideration
After obtaining ethical approval from the Ethics and Review Board Committee, a request letter will be sent to the Dean of the Nursing College for approval of the study. Upon approval, distribution of questionnaire with the consent letter will be done based on the most convenient time of the chosen respondents. Informed consent will be obtained after stating the definition and purpose of the study. The respondents will be informed of their right to withdraw at any time of the study. Full confidentiality will also be assured to the respondents. After completing the entire survey, a simple token of appreciation for participating will be given to the respondents.
Appendix I
center159639000Consent to Conduct the Study
España Boulevard, Sampaloc, Manila, Philippines 1015
Accredited by PACUCOA, Level IV Accredited Status, August 2015
Assoc. Prof. Susan Maravilla, DNM, RN
College of Nursing
University of Santo Tomas
Dear Assoc. Prof. Susan Maravilla,
Greetings in the name of St. Thomas Aquinas!
We have sent this letter in order to inform you that our group from 3NUR-5, CRC 5 would like to ask for your permission to conduct our study entitled “Factors Affecting Clinical Competence Among Nursing Students”. Please allow us to select 4th year nursing students enrolled in the college to participate in our study. Prior to the study, the participants will be given a consent form to be signed by themselves including their voluntary participation in the study. It shall also include the risks, benefits, purpose and conduct of the study.
Upon the approval of the consent form, the respondents will be asked to answer the survey in their convenient time. Full confidentiality will be assured and the results of the survey will only be utilized for academic purposes. Participants will not be subjected to any costs in the study.

We highly appreciate your support and contribution to the success of this study! If you have any inquiries or clarifications, you may contact the undersigned through 0995-386-4520 or email her at [email protected] yours,
__________________________ ___________________________
Myvy G. Inanuran Assoc. Prof. Rouena S. Villarama, MAEd., RN.

Research Group Representative Research Adviser
51720751011555-285751014095Informed Consent for the Participants
España Boulevard, Sampaloc, Manila, Philippines, 1015
Tel. No. 406-611 loc. 8362; Telefax: 731-5738
Email: [email protected]
Accredited by PACUCOA, Level IV Accredited Status, August 2015
Project Title: Factors Affecting Clinical Competence Among Nursing Students
Investigator(s): Robin Carlo Hui, Myvy Inanuran, Pauline Kaye Ipurong and Roaine Jardin
You are being invited to participate voluntarily in the study entitled Factors Affecting Clinical Competence Among Nursing Students under the supervision of Assoc. Prof. Rouena S. Villarama, MAEd., RN.

Before you agree to join in the study, you need to know the risks and benefits so you can make an informed decision. This process is known as Informed Consent.

Please read the information carefully. If you have questions, feel free to ask.

This study particularly aims to: (1) determine the factors that affect the clinical competence of nursing students, (2) to generate implications on how instruction or nursing curriculum can be enhanced to develop clinically competent student nurses.

In this study, you will be selected because you are a regular 4th year Thomasian student nurse.

Your responsibilities as a study subject include exercising truthfulness while answering. You would be given four tools and will be given thirty to forty-five minutes to answer.

The risks include breech of anonymity within the group, however the researchers will guarantee that every data gathered will remain confidential.

If you participate in this research, the result will shed more light to the clinical instructor and to the college as it will bring awareness as to what will be considered so that the learning instruction for the students will be modified.  
There will be no monetary costs on your part for participating in this study.

All of your information will be strictly held confidential. Unless required by law,  your name, will not be disclosed. Your name will be available only to the following people or authorities: the researcher and ethics committees. While participating in this study, the researcher will replace your name with a special code to identify you.

Your participation in this study is voluntary and you may cancel this consent any time and without any particular reasons. It is important that you inform anyone of the researchers whose name and number appears below. The researchers will continue to retain and use any research results that have already been collected for the study evaluation. No further study-related activities will take place. The choice to withdraw from research participation will not affect you. You will still be treated as usual.

You have the right to review your study information and request changes to the study information if it is not correct. However, please note that during the study, access to study information may be limited if it weakens the integrity of the research. You may have access to study information held by the researchers at the end of the study.

You can call or ask questions regarding this study. The contact persons for further information or for consultation on adverse events are Myvy G. Inanuran with contact number of 09953864520 and Roaine E. Jardin with contact number of 09165925331.

This study has been approved for implementation by the University of Santo Tomas College of Nursing Ethics Review Committee. If you have questions related to your rights as a research subject, please contact:
University of Santo Tomas College of Nursing Ethics Review Committee
Chair: Prof. Lily F. Famadico, Ph.D., RN
Address: 1st Floor, San Martin de Porres Bldg.Espana Blvd. Sampaloc Manila, 1015
Email: [email protected]
Mobile Number: (+639) 453477279
Tel No.: (+632) 4061611 Loc. 8362
Telefax: (+632) 7315738
I have read the foregoing information, or it has been read to me. I have had the opportunity to ask questions about it and any questions that I have asked have been answered to my satisfaction. I consent voluntarily to participate as a respondent in this research.

______________________________________                _________________________
      Subject’s signature over printed name     Date
We have accurately read out the information sheet to the potential respondent/s, and to the best of my ability made sure that the respondent understands that survey will be done. We confirm that the respondent was given an opportunity to ask questions about the study, and all the questions asked by the respondent have been answered correctly and to the best of our ability. We confirm that the individual has not been coerced into giving consent, and the
consent has been given freely and voluntarily.

______________________________________                _________________________
    Researcher’s signature over printed name               Date
right190500Appendix II – Curriculum Vitae
Robin Carlo U. Hui
Personal Details
Date of Birth: January 8, 2000
Nationality: Filipino
Marital Status: Single
Address: Don Mariano Marcos Hi-way, Bantug, Roxas, Isabela
: 1801 Tower 1 Pacific Suites Santander St Corner Dapitan Sampaloc Manila
Telephone No: 078 664 2284
Mobile No: 0917 829 8603
Email Address: [email protected]
Occupation: Student
Hobbies: Singing, traveling, driving and watching movies
Interests: Music, Politics, Business
2017 – 2018 University of Santo Tomas: College of Nursing
2016 – 2017 University of Santo Tomas: College of Nursing
2015 – 2016 University of Santo Tomas: College of Nursing
2014 – 2015 Philippine Yuh Chiau School; Third Honorable Mention
2013 – 2014 Philippine Yuh Chiau School; Silver Medalist; Vice President (Science Club)
2012 – 2013 Philippine Yuh Chiau School; Silver Medalist; Peace and Order Officer; Music Club President; Science Club Officer
2011 – 2012 Philippine Yuh Chiau School; Silver Medalist; Music Club President
2010 – 2011 Philippine Yuh Chiau School
2009 – 2010 Philippine Yuh Chiau School
2008 – 2009 Philippine Yuh Chiau School
2007 – 2008 Philippine Yuh Chiau School
2006 – 2007 Philippine Yuh Chiau School
2004 – 2005 Philippine Yuh Chiau School
4258310381000Myvy G. Inanuran
Personal Details
Date of Birth: March 23, 1999
Nationality: Filipino
Marital Status: Single
Address: 3390 C. Magistrado Arellano St. Bacood Sta. Mesa, Manila
Telephone No: None
Mobile No: 0995 386 4520
Email Address: [email protected]
Occupation: Student
Hobbies: Reading fiction books, watching series, playing volleyball, and singing.

Interests: Science, Music, Aesthetics, Nature
2017 – 2018 University of Santo Tomas: College of Nursing; Coro de Ruiseñores Member; UNICEF member; Dean’s Lister (1st Semester)
2016 – 2017 University of Santo Tomas: College of Nursing; Dean’s Lister (1st Semester)
2015 – 2016 University of Santo Tomas: College of Nursing; Dean’s Lister (1st & 2nd Semester)
2014 – 2015 Immaculate Heart of Mary College; Student Council Board Officer (Treasurer); 3rd honorable mention; SCB Leadership Award; SSVP Club Award
2013 – 2014 Immaculate Heart of Mary College; Society of St. Vincent de Paul Club President; Class Officer (Treasurer)
2012 – 2013 Immaculate Heart of Mary College
2011 – 2012 Immaculate Heart of Mary College
2010 – 2011 Don Bosco School, Manila; Diligence Award
2009 – 2010 Don Bosco School, Manila
2008 – 2009 Don Bosco School, Manila
2007 – 2008 Don Bosco School, Manila
2006 – 2007 Don Bosco School, Manila
2004 – 2005 Don Bosco School, Manila
Pauline Kaye V. Ipurong
Personal Details
Date of Birth: April 28, 1999
Nationality: Filipino
Marital Status: Single
Address: Provincial: 232 Samin street, Mabini Extension, Cabanatuan City
: 1243 Kaimito Residences, Navarra Street, Dapitan, Sampaloc, Manila
Telephone No: None
Mobile No: 0945 217 6743
Email Address: [email protected]
Occupation: Student
Hobbies: Watching movies
Interests: Foods, Travels
2017-2018: University of Santo Tomas, BS Nursing, A.Y 2017-2018; UNICEF member
2016-2017: University of Santo Tomas, BS Nursing, A.Y 2016-2017
2015-2016: University of Santo Tomas, BS Nursing, A.Y 2015-2016
2014-2015: Honorato C. Perez, Sr. Memorial Science High School
2014-2015: Best RCY member
2014-2015: CAT Officer
2013-2014: Honorato C. Perez, Sr. Memorial Science High School
2013-2014: Classroom President
2012-2013: Honorato C. Perez, Sr. Memorial Science High School
2012-2013: MAPEH Club Officer
2012-2013: Filipino Club Officer
2012-2013: Math Club Officer
2012-2013: RCY Officer
2012-2013: Supreme Student Government Auditor
2012-2013: Classroom President
2011-2012: Honorato C. Perez, Sr. Memorial Science High School
Roaine E. Jardin
Personal Details
Date of Birth: January 5, 1999
Nationality: Filipino
Marital Status: Single
Address: Provincial: 110 Provincial Road, Bayaoas, Urdaneta City
: Celestial Marie Building, Unit 406 A, 950 A.H Lacson, Sampaloc, Manila City
Telephone No: None
Mobile No: 0916 592 5331
Email Address: [email protected]
Occupation: Student
Hobbies: Singing, playing instruments such as guitar, violin, etc., and watching movies
Interests: Music, Medicine, Acting
2017 – 2018 University of Santo Tomas: College of Nursing; Classroom Officer (Treasurer); Coro Member
2016 – 2017 University of Santo Tomas: College of Nursing; Thomasian Idol Participant; Classroom Officer (Treasurer)
2015 – 2016 University of Santo Tomas: College of Nursing
2014 – 2015 Divine Word College of Urdaneta; Supreme Students Government Officer (Treasurer); Mission Club President; Glee Club Officer; Classroom Officer; C.A.T Officer; Divinians’ Got Talent (Champion)
2013 – 2014 Divine Word College of Urdaneta: Dean’s Lister; Classroom Officer; Best Broadcasting Team (DSPC – Division Schools Press Conference)
2012 – 2013 Divine Word College of Urdaneta: Dean’s Lister; Classroom Officer
2011 – 2012 Divine Word College of Urdaneta: Dean’s Lister; Classroom Officer
2010 – 2011 Merryland Montessori & Highschool Inc.
2009 – 2010 Merryland Montessori & Highschool Inc.

2008 – 2009 Merryland Montessori & Highschool Inc.

2007 – 2008 Merryland Montessori & Highschool Inc.

2006 – 2007 Merryland Montessori & Highschool Inc.

2004 – 2005 Merryland Montessori & Highschool Inc.

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Al-Ghareeb, A. Z., Cooper, S. J., & McKenna, L. G. (2017). Anxiety and Clinical Performance in Simulated Setting in Undergraduate Health Professionals Education: An Integrative Review. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 13(10), 478–491. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecns.2017.05.015
Aoyama, M., D, P., Tamura, Y., D, P., Ishikawa, Y., D, P., & Yada, M. (2013). Confidence-weighted testing?: A descriptive study of Japanese nursing students, 504–509. https://doi.org/10.1111/nhs.12066
Aupia, A., Lee, T.-T., Liu, C.-Y., Wu, S.-F. V., & Mills, M. E. (2017). Caring behavior perceived by nurses, patients and nursing students in Indonesia. Journal of Professional Nursing. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.profnurs.2017.11.013
Baxter, R., & Edvardsson, D. (2018). Impact of a critical care postgraduate certificate course on nurses’ self-reported competence and confidence: A quasi-experimental study. Nurse Education Today, 65(January), 156–161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2018.03.004
Bifftu, B. B., Dachew, B. A., Tiruneh, B. T., Kelkay, M. M., ; Bayu, N. H. (2016). Perceived clinical competence among undergraduate nursing students in the University of Gondar and Bahir Dar University , Northwest Ethiopia?: a cross-sectional institution based study. Journal Advance in Nursing, 2016, 1–7.

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