5. was less opportunity for achieving their prescribed

5. Discussion


This section perfectly elaborates
the findings section to provide a better approach to getting answers to the questions related to the role of women in Pakistan. This chapter has
been divided into several parts and the former explains the motivational
aspects of the empowerment that led women to step outside and have their own
individual business lives. The second one discusses the facilities provided by
the government to the women in order to
have empowered hearts around the country. The last one explains the role-playing that this Mastung project did on
changing the lives of women.


5.1 Productive growth and motivation


Among the entire women population in
the district, about 82% of them had low education level. That meant many
respondents didn’t go to college to have a graduation degree. It was quite hard
for them to find any kind of work for becoming economically independent and have
social freedom.


it was equally difficult for them to have higher education in Mastung since
there was less opportunity for achieving their prescribed goals. Other factors
that might act as obstacles between them and higher studies can also be social
pressure, family responsibilities, gender inequalities, lack of confidence and
so on. No lectured motivation to women also seemed to be a cause of lower level
of education in females who ultimately
decided to be happy with their household work rather than following dreams. It
was noted that the literacy rate in many rural areas had significantly been
lower than that of urban. That means if the rural areas had a literacy rate of 50% then the urban will lead
the field of study by earning 80% growth in education. The fact that men
usually had higher chances of getting a higher education than the women also highlights
the point of illiteracy in women. Presently, about 65% chances were there in
rural areas for the proper growth and education of women where that of men had
80% and plus. And yet, women desired to pursue economic growth for the benefit
of their self-confidence and their entire


Women who wanted to pursue this
growth usually have a motivational factor of trying to get a better life for
their family. The uniqueness that the researchers could see was the support
they got from their families and friends. They didn’t expect this. The findings
section elaborately explains how the majority
of these women didn’t face any problem; rather they got all the help they
needed from their family members. Among all, 18% respondents have had to face
such situation in the initial stages of business roles. The factor that easily
motivated then to perform their duties in spite
of the reversals was the desire to give a better
life to their families and children. They wanted their children to have
better education and nutritional health so that they can get to face a future
better then these women were living. The roots for this can belong to the fact
that they themselves never had to face such a positive lives in their childhood;
rather they were bereft of life’s necessities due to poverty. We children,
these respondents had to be away from education, health, and nutrition. But they wanted to provide
everything to their offsprings that they themselves couldn’t get. The
observation that the women belonging to higher caste would be given more
opportunities than the ones in lower
casts is an eye-opening one. The women
who possessed a higher graduated degree
or similar educational level didn’t seem to be having lower cast.  According to
ABD report, middle and higher class women could find access to education better than the ones belonging to
poor dimensions.


5.2 Various dimensions


With the help of CDP, women were
able to get extra technical as well as
marketing knowledge by using it in practical life. They were easily able to use
their knowledge related to the field in
their business lives to gain self-confidence
and economic development of their respective families. Zaineb confirmed this (2009) by saying that the skills and
development process that they were receiving from training classes played a vital role in
achieving higher growth of their families and
themselves. The research results state a
certain positive impact that women started to see in their lives after having
to perform business-related activities in
their day-to-day lives. They had achieved a better
level of living and could even save money for emergencies. Some women,
who got micro-crediting facility from
governmental firms, were able to get better financial returns from their


The usual narrow-minded and traditional thinking in the male dominant society
is that the females should always be “stay at home” housewives rather
than become the lead reason for regular earnings. This social pressure made
them accept the rules of their family members and stayed at home. The present
data, however, opposes this mentality and narrow-mindedness
and shows that women were easily supported by their family members. Respondents
didn’t have to face any difficulties regarding the admission process and in fact, male members of their families helped
them at every cost. The primary reason
for this behavior might be the influence of neighboring cities such as Quetta,
Katal, Mach, Dhadar and so on. In some of these cities, men and women freely
work together. Since the rural men would go there for earning a livelihood, they would perceive a different reality than that of traditional
mindset they originally had. Seeing other females achieving great heights, they
could feel that the women in their respective families should be able to get
equal opportunities for proper growth and development. Another factor that can
contribute to this phenomenon is that some of these men might even work with the seniors who could be females. They
might have had realized the power and strength that females possess and thus,
their pride and ego of being a “dominant male” could vanish into


Women happily stated that the
household activities did not come between the performance
of their business related activities and their families helped them greatly.

This had been an important factory for the growth of the women since if there
was any disagreement on any of the sides the situation could have had been out
of hands and the women could have had faced worst problems such as divorce or
closed business. It has been long observed by Nestvogel and Klein (1992) that
women’s social status is affected by
society and domestic norms.


5.3 Economic growth


The results provide enough proof of
the growing well-being of the women,
especially living in the rural areas of Mastung. Their level of poverty has
reduced and the income their family had previously earned was increased. One of
these women also noted the realistic fact that since men are being unemployed
in today’s fast pacing world, the possibility of becoming poorer would be increased. And thus, the burden
goes on women’s shoulder and they are also desired to contribute to giving financial assistance to their
husbands. Majority of women could feel happy by having to save enough money for
their future and possible emergencies. It’s
because of their hard work, one of them even managed to get employment in the
one of the nearby city’s private firm.


Respondents have given easy access the firms that provided financial assistance
and facilities like micro-credit and
microfinance facilities to the respondents. The only problem they had to face
was to have minimum marketing facility for their quality products and low wages
for their hard work.  The series of
complaints didn’t stop just there. They also noted that as compared to males,
the cost of sewing they received was half of what was expected. Even though the
quality of work that women would provide was better than that of men, they
would still get a low wage, status, and
marketing support.


5.4 Making decision


The process of decision making makes
it much easier for the growth of a particular business at to achieve great
heights. It provides certain firmness to the efficiency
for the business to grow to its utmost limits. When women are responsible for
making certain household as well as business-related
decisions, it can be seen as the empowerment of women that was the original
goal of this research paper. It can also be used as a measurement tool for
taking in the level and capacity empowerment that women have achieved. The decision making power shows the influential
power that the women posses with respect to family members. But the research
has done to make sure the outlined concepts and thoughts were true and
surprisingly the results did show the divided concepts that were previously not
known by many organizations around the district. Originally it was thought that
the married women wouldn’t get the chance of being able to take any decision related
to their business and family affairs. But the study and the results of it were
proved completely wrong since it’s the opposite what was found to be true. The
married women were found to have firmness and confidence in their decision-making power and they were even seen
to handle their family affairs pretty well. On the other hand, the unmarried
women were not able to take proper decision did to lack of mobility and
dependence on parents for wellbeing. After the study, it was observed that about three fourth
of the entire population of women in Mastung district were able to tasks full
decisions and only one-fourth of them had
partial access to their influential power towards the decision. Sajid and Khan
(2011) also stated that the married women have a certain beneficiary factor and
that is their decision-making process
that they learn after getting married. They are practically forced to handle
their own affairs rather than being dependent on their parents for everything.


Unmarried girls didn’t have much
independence since their wellbeing was being taken care of by their parents or
sometimes even their brothers took part in taking decisions instead of their
parents. They ultimately had to follow the instructions and decisions made by
their guardians. But in the present day, as informed by these respondents, the
situation is changing drastically. The prevailing viewpoint of these girls and unmarried women were seen as the
unique factor in the decision-making process.

To some extent, unmarried were also given weight in decision-making capabilities by their brothers and parents.  It was noted in a study (2002) that the women
who were likely to go out alone had greater decision power on the household
platform and could handle the affairs easily.


The unmarried respondents were
questioned about this decision-making
capacity and in reply, they told the
interviewer that they had the capacity of taking the decision of their marriage
freely. Their parents would ask and consult with them regarding the subject
matter. Many of them were happy to declare that they were not forced to have
arranged a marriage before the right age
comes and they also were given enough independence of economy. As duly noted by
ADP, the rate of the age of women getting
married was surprisingly increased from
17.9 to 20.8 within 30 years of age span. Since the majority of the respondents were educated, they did not face any
difficulty is making the decisions regarding business ventures.


Social economy and the aspect of
education being provided to these women proved to be an asset for the process of decision making. It was firmly noted in
2009 that many of such women were able to take blood decisions related to their
business while other 57% took decisions being combined their husbands. Among the
rest of the candidates, about 15% of the remaining women let their husbands make all the decisions and other 3% women were
dependent on male members of the family other than their husband.


As many as 6 women were able to use
their credited amount given by financial firms. Above
all, if
they were educated and only 4 of them had
been living happy married lives. Only 2 of these women were widowed. With
respect to finance and economic growth, the age and marital status of women
played a huge role in determining their decision making power and empowering
influence they had to help them achieve independence.


5.5 Facilities from Government


Motivation factor had been as
important as to make the decision for the
growth of the economy in their day to day
lives. If motivation could not be found elsewhere, self-motivation could be the
only available option around for real. And it needs a medium, the dream, to
come to the realistic platform and be used for the respondents. Aside from this, the
good hope for this motivation that had women going along with their desires
were the facilities provided by the governmental organizations. There have had
been multiple organizations, such as Mastung development project, that have
contributed much to the wellbeing of the
entire poor residents. Other social workers expressed that when these
governmental organizations target women they usually lack the framework of gender
equality. They also acknowledged the power of skilled training and development
programs as well as crediting system that can provide these women several
powerful ways for development and growth. Among the two, the former helped them
in achieving business goals and established a business
franchise. This fact was proved when this research was actually done by
the researchers. All the respondents were able to find solace in the training
program provided by the Mastung development project. The interview section that
was organized by this project also went well and it was noted that the respondents
had great respect for the government facilities they were provided. They spoke
about how these facilities gave them initial help and hope that aided to become
the focused motivation that helped in achieving their goals. Other than that,
they guaranteed that this approach can lead to health, economic as well as empowering
aspect of reality.


5.6 The role of Mastung development


The Mastung project had been working
for the wellbeing of the rural areas and to initiate a skillful development for
women. The dimensions provided by this project acted as a catalyst that gave
hope and motivation to the respondents for becoming independent and breaks the shackles of old traditional ideas
that limited their strengths. The women felt empowered by the admission of this
project and learned multiple skills
through which they can lead happy lives ahead. Before this project started, women
had no say in family decisions and they were not free to go out of their
houses. They weren’t aware of their technical skills and capabilities of making
decisions that led their small-scale
businesses to ultimate heights. Better training can be an asset to have a good
and fruitful life ahead (Haq 2002).


It was not easy to have this project
firmly established in such a strong traditional minded region. They faced oppression
from many people, even communities. But it had been good fortune for the
manager of the project that he had a master degree in the subject social
working and he skillfully handled the situation. But later everyone started to
appreciate their endeavor since many men were also aware of the city life. They
covered multiple ranges of subjects for improvement of the economy and
empowerment of women such as child education, computer learning, business
skills, arts, production, industrial working and many more. With many more
ideas, they aim to have a better future ahead and if this project continues to
thrive in that area, the development of women and economy is sure to occur.


6. Conclusion


It started with the idea of initiating a Mastung development project in the
district and later it achieved great success. The management was found to be appreciable
and there was the improved standard of
living provided to the rural respondents that facilitated their growth. It granted
them motivation to have a business, even if small-scale,
for becoming as independent as women in urban areas. It created positive vibes
around the public mostly because of the happiness of women and the motivational
lectures that they were providing. This had proved to be an asset to improve
the condition of women and their families in rural areas. If such projects were
to initiate in every other rural area,
they would surely taste the heights of growth and development.


Women were able to learn the power
of making a decision and their confidence
increased. The activities of child labor became significantly less as compared
to the pre-project days. The better child-care, public health, nutritional
needs, growing economy was seen after the project commenced. Other than that,
they took many steps to remove the gender inequality from the minds of the public around the district. It successfully
broke the barriers of traditional rules and regulations freeing women to earn
their own livelihood. The financial assistance helped them achieve a great deal
and this research project could see that these women have become much more
confident and independent.


7. Recommendations


There are several factors that can
be improved to provide better services to the people around the district such
as improving their budget. There should be an arrangement
of weekly programs and seminars for the benefit of both the genders on the
topic of equality. Courses regarding various skills and industrial training
should be initiated for the women to take another leap to achieve success. Presently,
only females have been targeted for the improvement of economy and development
of the country but in the near future, steps should be taken to have programs
and targeting options for males either. Classes such as management of business
should also take place for the post-business mode of the business entrepreneurs.

There should be enough knowledge or training programs given to the families
living there about the facilities of the loan
and other financial services initiated by the government
so that they can get the successful benefit
of it. There should be internship programs arranged for students to have the benefit of becoming works person. The center should
also take care of opportunities available to
the public in the district. There should be pre-arranged classes and training
programs for career counseling purposes so that lost public can be benefitted.

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