5. lifestyle, environmental pollution, heavy metals, chemicals, pesticides,

5. Life style and dietMenopauses like many other things that influence the life of a human being including diseases are subject to lifestyle and diet. In the last 40 to 50 years, the diet and lifestyle of the western cultures have found their way into Africa. These are in the main poor diet laden with processed fats and carbohydrates, unhealthy lifestyle, environmental pollution, heavy metals, chemicals, pesticides, herbicides and wrong use of synthetic hormones for animals and by human beings. (www.women – health-question.com/early-signs-of-menopause.

htl, 2008). Signs and Symptoms of MenopauseA number of symptoms are experienced by women during the climacteric transition. .

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Various studies revealed that, many women experience minimal distress during the transition period. While Some women experience a decreased quality of life which is due to these distressful symptoms (Bromberger et al, 2007. ; many of which may not last long while some may extend well beyond. Vascular instability is caused by Irregular menstrual periods,Water retention, Fluctuations in blood sugar,Hot flashes or hot flushes, including night sweat and in few people cold flashes. Mclellan et al., 2003, Migraine Headaches, palpitations due to irregular heartbeat (www.

women – health-question.com/early-signs-of-menopause.htl, 20). Sexual Effect Breast Tenderness,Vaginal dryness, increased vaginal pH predisposing the women to bacterial infections and atrophic vaginitis Smeltzer, 2006) Yeast Infections, Decreased interest in sex, possibly Nisar &Sohoo 2009 decreased response to sexual, stimulation, dyspareunia or painful intercourse, and smaller clitoris , problem reaching orgasm (Marilyn Glenville, 2010). Psychological Effect forgetfulness (in some women), Mood swings or disturbance, irritability, depression, and anxiety, Increased stress, (Mitchel, 2007) Chronic fatigue, and Light sleep insomnia Subak et al 2009.

Urogental Atrophy Thinning of the membrane of the vulva, vagina, cervix, and outer urinary tract, shrinking and loss in elasticity of all outer and inner genital areas, Smeltzer 2006 Urinary frequency such as Urinary Urgency, Urine leakage, Watery discharge, bleeding, and Urinary incontinence. (Marilyn Glenville,,2010) Skeletal effect Aches and pains, cramps (back, joint, and muscle), In some cases osteoporosis gradually develop (Marilyn Glenville,2010) Skin, soft tissue Skin thinning and becoming dried, Formication (itching, tingling, pins and needles for sensation of ants crawling on or under skin), Changes in body hair like thinning of public, axillary and head hair;, Decreased elasticity of the skin, decreased cervical size, uterine cavity and tubes; and the breast tenderness becoming less full and decreased collagen levels, more abdominal fats, cystitis,  (www.menopausematters,co uk/newsitem.php,2010) Important morbidity issues associated with the transition include; osteoporosis and fractures due to decreased estrogen levels which ordinarily help to build and maintain bones and increased risk of cardiovascular disease (McLellan, Gallacher, Fraser, & McQuillian, 2003Ossewaarde et al 2005 reported that menopause can have an impact on the overall quality of life of women as one of the main causes of osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. Besides these diseases, obesity and high BMI contributes to morbidity and mortality, leading to some forms of cancer and chronic diseases, such as osteoarthritis, liver and kidney diseases, sleep apnea, and depression and emotional outburst like shedding of tears and anger (Sembulingam 2012 ; The Reasons behind Symptoms of MenopauseBiological reasons like Hormonal imbalance are the major cause of some of the menopause symptoms, Changes in Monthly Cycle can occurs due homoral imbalance in a menopausal woman or to women before menopause of poo diet and nutrition. Women having Pre Menstrual Symdrome and Cramps may increase in frequency and severity during menopause. Infact women that experience PMS may suffer more during their menopausal year.

Saw, Ricci, Starovoytov, Fox, &Buller 2013www.women – health-question.com/early-signs-of-menopause.

htl, 2008). Hormonal imbalance affect emotional state of an individuals. mood swings and depression are emotional being that scientific studies shown to control women emotional state during menopause. Scientific finding reveals that certain hormones cause relaxation, others makes person to be more energetic while some become more passive. In menopause the imbalance change the emotional state of a woman causing mood swings, depression, or aggressive behaviour (www.women – health-question.com/early-signs-of-menopause.

htl, 2008). Hormonal imbalance is also to blame for hot flushes. When the metabolic activity is increase due to fluctuations of the hormonal and the erratic behaviour of the adrenal gland leads to over secretion the release of excess unwanted energy.

Lack of sleep and depression confounded with unhealthy weight control diet result in low energy can cause menopausal women to suffer from chronic Fatigue, aches and pains happen. In women, testosterone is the hormone responsible for hair growth and it is control by estrogen. The rapid decline in estrogen level during menopause cause testosterone to take off on skewed tangent triggers abnormal or strange hair growth. causing hair growth in unwanted areas or sometimes causing hair loss. . (www.women – health-question.com/early-signs-of-menopause.

htl, 2008).symptoms of insomnia affect close to 61% of postmenopausal women(16) according to report of national sleep foundation women in midlife experience sleep disturbance during their menopause transition which include difficulties falling or staying asleep for three or more nights per week for one month.(16). Loss of sleep interrupt secretion of ghrelin by increasing its levels while decreasing the level of leptin the satiety hormone which can raise the risk of weight gain.(17) other reasons for insomnia can be attributed to (16) Hot flashes because body temperature dramatically rises, leading to night sweats that cause sudden waking, Sleep disorders such as restless leg syndrome and sleep apnea, mood swings and depression that accompanies hormonal imbalance make menopausal women stay up all night worrying (18 ). Less vaginal lubrication happens due to decline in estrogen level during menopause.

Thinning and drying out of the vaginal walls due to loss of vaginal moisture makes intercourse very painful. In a psychological point of view, depression may leave a woman feeling old and unattractive, and this may lead to loss of interest or desire in love life (R).Menopause complicationsAs estrogen levels decline during menopause, risk of a woman developing chronic degenerating disease conditions may increase. Diseases like Heart disease, form of Cancers (breast, colon, and cervical), diabetes, Osteoporosis, hypertension, Alzheimer disease, Macular degeneration, serious eye disorder such as Glaucoma, and much more may manifest. Osteoporosis and menopauseOsteoporosis is a condition associated with a loss in bone density and bone mass and is primarily found in middle age and elderly women who had early menopause and had sedentary life.

Their major symptom is an increased vulnerability to bone fractures.(Srilakshmi, 2008). Osteoporosis is perhaps the most serious symptoms of menopause because it can lead to severe health problems such as chronic back pain and broken bones.

As much as 20% of women can lose their bone density five to seven years after menopause (12). Not only does osteoporosis threaten a woman’s physical health, the disease can often progresses without any symptoms or pain. Generally, fractures usually in the back or hips (Gates, 2006).Synergistic relations occur on ageing and bones health as critical window for bone loss occurs one to two years before a woman’s last period and five years after ( Diane L.

Schneider), shrilakshmi, (2008) report that about 33% of women over 50 years will experience bone fractures as a result of osteoporosis due to hormonal fluctuations that precede menopause and the permanently low hormonal levels of post menopause that play a major role in the onset of osteoporosis. There are treatment options available, it’s important to educated women about osteoporosis in order to know how to prevent and treat it.Symptoms of osteoporosisOne of the main issues with the onset of osteoporosis is that many people who begin developing it don’t realise they are afflicted until they experience a bone fracture as a result. Symptoms generally begins to occur late in the disease when there are not many options to regain the necessary bone density (R).

The common symptoms that can indicate osteoporosis are: Loss of height as a result of weakened spine, Fractured bones, especially hip bones, Bone pain and tenderness neck, spine and lower back pain, Dissolution of the jaw bones, Broken bones, brittle fingernails, Periodontal disease, premature loss of tooth, Spinal deformities become evident like stopped posture, an outward curve at the top of the spine as a result of developing a vertebral collapse on the back (humped backs characteristics of many elderly people).(Shrilakshmi, 2008).Risk factorsThe causes of osteoporosis may be age related changes like decreased oestrogen production associated with menopause. Decline in circulating 17-beta-estradiol is the predominant factor in the


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