5. they use a more controlling coaching style

5. In looking at the influences of coaching behavior and how it influences sport performance, many theoretical models have been developed to try and explain and conceptualize how to create better outcomes. In Chelladurai’s multidimensional model of leadership (1978, 1990, 2007), it is proposed that the outcome of leadership effectiveness can be measured multidimensionally through performance outcomes and member satisfaction. Situational characteristics, leadership characteristics, and member characteristics interact to influence the actual behavior of the coach, the preferred leader behavior of the athletes, and the situational behavior required for the context of the sport. Smith and Smoll (1989), in their mediational model of leadership, proposed that there is a relationship between situational, cognitive, behavioral, and individual differences, and both the athlete’s characteristics and coach’s behavior can be used to predict the athlete’s perception of skill to lead to certain outcomes. In a third model, Mageau and Vallerand (2003) suggest that the coach-athlete relationship influences the coaching style employed. Specifically, the coach’s personal orientation, the coaching context, and the coach’s perception of athletes determine whether they use a more controlling coaching style or a more autonomy-supportive style.
Based on these models, Horn proposed an integrated working model of coaching behavior (Horn, 2008). This model outlines the factors that can influence coaching behavior and how a coach’s behavior can affect an athlete’s development and performance and incorporates the factors that influence behavior and performance found in the previous models. Coaching behavior is motivated by the coaches’ expectancies, values, beliefs, and goals. These traits are influenced by factors of the sociocultural context of the sport, the organizational climate, and the coaches’ personal characteristics. The sociocultural context can manifest itself in the socioeconomic status of the team, and it can also indirectly influence performance through its effect on coach personal characteristics and the athletes’ perception of the coaches’ behavior. The organizational climate can manifest itself in the form of the governing body of the sport, such as a soccer club and their regulations for the teams within the club, and the team of coaches working with the team of players. The coaches’ personal characteristics can be exemplified by how the coach manages and reacts to stress and success. All of these factors are interrelated to impact the expectancies, values, beliefs, and goals of the coach and, in turn, lead to how the coaches’ behavior manifests.
The ultimate goal of the model is to see the determining factors of athletes’ performance and behavior. Coach behavior both directly and indirectly has an influence on this outcome factor. Directly, how the coach treats the athletes and what coaching style they employ can lead to either a positive or negative impact on how athletes perform and how they behave in certain outcome situations. In a more indirect sense, an athlete’s perceptions, interpretations, and evaluation of their coach’s behavior is linked to the athlete’s personal characteristics, such as their physical and mental health, and the behavior of the coach. How the athlete perceives, evaluates, and interprets the coaches’ behavior effects athletes’ self-perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes, such as how skilled they think they are in the sport. This self-interpretation of abilities leads directly to the performance and belief outcomes of the athletes and indirectly by way of the influence on the athletes’ level and type of motivation, or what is keeping them participating in sports.
This model, while still a working model of effective coaching, is fitting to summarize the factors that lead to determining coaching behavior and how coach behavior can impact athlete performance. It works with the emphasis that coaching behavior occurs in a larger context than just within the sport or game, it does not occur within a vacuum. This idea is representative of the personal and environmental factors that play a role in how the coach behaves. The model also works with the idea that coach behavior both directly and indirectly affect athlete performance. This is connected with the individualized way that athletes perceive or interpret coach behavior. Furthermore, coach behavior will be mediated by both situational and individual differences, with the recognition that effective coach behavior varies as a function of the athlete and sport context. In using this working model of coaching behavior, coaches can be more aware of what impacts their behavior, so they can work to better support the performance and behavior of their athletes.


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