3. of recognition of the interests of the

3. Cease-fire between India and Pakistan on the Kashmir border (January, 1949). 4. Stopping aggression in South Korea, and driving away the aggressors. 5. The Specialised Agencies of the United Nations have done good job in fighting poverty, igno­rance, malnutrition and disease. 6. International Convention on the crime of genocide was approved by the General Assembly.

(The term genocide applies to the deliberate destruction of a human group, clan or tribe). 7. Universal Declaration of Human Rights. This historic document was passed and proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly on 10th December, 1948. Rights enunciated therein are regarded as the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world. This is the result of recognition of the interests of the individual’s dignity and equality with others, and it cannot be realised without certain inalienable socio-economic, cultural, civic and political rights. 8. The United Nations Political Committee unanimously approved a resolution envisaging a con­crete plan for world cooperation to develop atomic energy for peaceful uses; great advance has been made in this direction.

The International Atomic Energy Commission has been setup. 9. The withdrawal of the Anglo-French and Israeli forces from Egypt in 1956. 10.

The Induction of the United Nations Emergency Force in Egypt, and later, its stationing on the border and in the Gulf of Aqaba led to the reduction of tension. 11. The U.N. Specialised Agencies lend assistance to the members by sending experts to teach, to train and to help. The very fact that so far no nation (except Indonesia for a short period) had left the United Nations goes to prove that all the nations regard it as the forum for bringing peace; besides, persistent efforts were made in the past bv the non-member nations to be admitted as members of the United Nations. 12.

In the economic field, the disinterested research surveys and planning carried out by the United Nations helped to provide the ground work on which sound national and regional economic policies could be based. 13. The U.

N. played a vital role in Congo (i) by the employment of civilians for its economic development, (ii) by employing force to set up a unified Central Government, and it was mainly through its efforts that the situation was stabilised, the secession of Katanga liquidated, and a strong Central Government set up in Congo. The Congolese imbroglio refuses to go away.

The civil war has cost thousands of lives, despite intervention by the United Nations and the African countries. Congo has been ripped apart of its mineral wealth by the unscrupulous and vested interests. 2003-04, continues to be a period of bloodshed and revenge. Dr. Nelson Mndela extended the full weight of his personality to resolve the dispute but to no avail.

14. West Irian issue was resolved; its peaceful transfer to Indonesia took place on 1st May, 1960. 15. The liquidation of colonialism from Asia and Africa has been the result of the efforts of the U.N. 16. The Cuban crisis of October, 1962 was resolved by the intervention of the U.N.

Secretary- General, U. Thant. 17. The formation of Malaysia created an explosive situation,, later the U.N.

was appointed to ascertain the wishes of North Borneo and Sarawak (August, 1963); the U.N. report led to the establishment of Malaysia, though this decision had been challenged by Indonesia. 18. Partial nuclear test ban treaty among U.

S.A., U.K. and U.

S.S.R.

was signed on 7th August, 1963. 19. It played a great part in resolving the crisis in Cyprus, where a U.N. commander was appointed. 20. It called upon India and Pakistan to agree to a ceasefire (23rd September, 1965). 21.

It demanded the imposition of economic sanctions and diplomatic boycott of South Africa to end the policy of apartheid. 22. It intervened in the West Asian War of June, 1967, and brought about a ceasefire. 23. The U.

N. Force was inducted into the West Asian region to enforce peace in November, 1973. 24. The threat of imminent war between Turkey and Greece was averted in November, 1974. 25. It called for the withdrawal of the occupation forces of the Warsaw Pact Nations from Czecho­slovakia (August, 1968).

26. Non-Proliferation Treaty has been signed by more than hundred nations. 27.

The United Nations met in an emergency session in 1971 to discuss the Indo-Pak conflict. 28. In October, 1973, the United Nations passed a resolution under which U.N.E.F. was created in order to supervise peace in West Asia. The force consisted of 7,000 men.

29. It focussed attention on the plight of women all over the world by observing 1975 as Women’s Liberation year. 30. The U.N. also helped resolve the ‘Law of the Sea Conference’, by holding a number of Confer­ences in New York and Geneva in 1978-79. 31. In 1979 focus was on the problems of the children.

32. The United Nations is trying to bring about World Disarmament. 33. The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development aims at free trade and commerce amongst the various countries, Conferences have been held in Geneva, New Delhi, Santiago and Nairobi. 34.

The United Nations held a Conference on Desertification in 1977. 35. Energy crises, population control, food problem, environmental pollution are some of the topics discussed by the Special Sessions of the United Nations. 36. The United Nations has played a key role in the prevention of environmental degradation.

In June 1972, a conference was held in Stockholm on Environment. On the occasion of its 20th anniversary another conference was held in Rio in 1992. A conforence on sustainable develop­ment was held in Johannesburg in August 2002. 37.

The most successful accomplishment of the United Nations was in 1991, when Kuwait was liberated from the Iraqi control. If the UN had not acted in unanimity, serious situations would have developed. (The UN Secy. Gen. resolved the Iraqi imbroglio in Feb 1998). 38.

The United Nations has also played a key role in resolving the Kampuchean dispute. Cambodia was governed by the United Nations from Oct 91 to May ’93, when Hun Sen was elected as the Prime Minister. 39. Namibia was given independence in March 1990. The ceremony was presided over by the U.N. Secretary General, Mr.

Perez de Cuellar. 40. The German problem which defied a solution for almost 45 years was settled on Oct. 3, 1990, when the two German states were united.

The most remarkable symbol of cold war ended for all times to come. 41. The United Nations played a decisive role in the freedom movement of East Timor, and its liberation from the stranglehold of Indonesia in 2001. 42. In 2003, the UN launched “international year of fresh water” and highlighted its importance by emphasising how in the developing world, millions are deprived of access to potable water.

43. Hans Blix, the UN’s weapons inspector in Iraq, exposed the perfidy of the US and its Allies in their endeavour to twist facts pertaining to Weapons of Mass Destruction to suit their agenda in March 2003. 44, The World Trade Organisation marches ahead, liberalising & globalising world trade. The Sept 2003, Cancum Summit has strengthened the resolve of the world community to integrate itself economically.

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