3. “Without the assumption of the existence of uniformities there can be no knowledge.” Discuss claim with reference to two areas of knowledge. The late Irish writer and philosopher, George William Russell once claimed, “We have the universe to roam in imagination. It is our virtue to be infinitely varied. The worst tyranny is uniformity” (Uniformity Quotes). His quote cautions us against repetitiveness and draws our attention to the importance of diversity in facilitating human diversity and ingenuity. Consequently, one would pose and early on in this essay, ‘to what extent is uniformity conducive to the production of knowledge?’ The answer is evidently not in favor of this inclination; fearing that a strict adherence to uniformity would crush our ability as humans to be creative and innovative. Nevertheless, acknowledging that understanding of uniformities related to the different areas of knowledge as well as those that exist in our universe is important; however, not sufficient. In this respect, the assumption made by the prescribed topic is going to be questioned to claim that knowledge can exist through uniform and none uniform or irregular contexts. This claim is going to be examined through the areas of knowledge of natural sciences and the history. The focus of the essay will be on the knowledge question: To what extent is scientific and historicalknowledge solely reliant on uniform paradigms?A quick reflection upon my own personal scientific knowledge, I can detect a strong presence for uniform paradigms that reflect themselves in a consistent and uniform manner. When considering the topic of energy production, significant uniformities are reflected. Firstly, we always use Sankey diagrams to represent energy inputs and outputs in regard to useful and none useful sources. Secondly, the process of energy transformation is a uniform one as well (Topic 8: Energy production). However, the change of energy from one form to another is not a uniform one because types of energy differ from one source to another (ibid.). This example simply makes one realize that physical phenomena do not happen in a linear manner. Thus, knowledge related to them needs to take into consideration uniform and irregular patterns in order to produce or attain knowledge that is comprehensive, deep and reflective of different contexts and processes. Moreover, while natural phenomena usually reflect uniform patterns on Planet Earth, human activities do induce irregularities that need to be studied and understood. This claim can be validated by the example of global warming. Due to human activities, the level of greenhouse gases is going up; thus, causing temperature on Earth and the atmosphere surrounding it to go up (What is global warming?). Studying those irregular patterns in weather and temperature changes not only produces valuable knowledge but it also enables scientists to understand how to deal with the domino effect of this phenomenon. In this respect, the studying of the none uniformities will help scientists to rationalize measures that would intercept the increased rates of desertification, rise of sea level, melting of snow and ice in the North and South Poles; in addition to finding measures that would limit the eruption of hurricanes and cyclones (ibid.). In this respect, one would claim that at times, the understanding of irregularities that affect our natural environments is also of any equal importance for the production and attainment of knowledge. In this respect, we can also claim that such an understanding would also produce knowledge that would find solutions to those environmental problems. Nevertheless, one should not limit scientific knowledge to either uniformities or irregularities. This is due to the fact that up till our present day, scientists have not been able to provide comprehensive and extensive rationalizations for many phenomena that exist in our universe. One of those is what physicists call dark matter; which was theorized about around fifty years ago but no one has been able to provide evidence that it exists (Top 10 Unsolved Mysteries of Science). This brings one to perspectives of knowledge that resort to hypotheses in order to explain phenomena that we cannot really explain. Thus,the knowledge produced is merely based on assumptions rather than well-founded and substantiated knowledge. In this respect the composition of the dark matter is believed to be made up of “axions, neutralinos, and photinos” (ibid.) which are sub-atomic and smaller particles than the known structure of an atom. However, those constituents have never been proven to be the actual components of dark matter, for a controversial cause. The case is, these very small particles have never been detected and measured physically, thus, the Copenhagen theory of quantum mechanics states that these particles do not exist because there’sno technology available to detect these particles physically, although the assumption of the existence of these particles form the modern quantum physics theorem. One would infer from this discussion is that at times scientific knowledge is restricted by limitations of contexts under consideration because they are either not accessible to us or we do not have the technology to verify it. From a historical aspect, historical knowledge is dependent on the fact that all the information was passed to us through generations by books and documentations, therefore, the reliability of these information is confirmed by the human factor, which leads us to think of a uniform and a standardprotocol to identify true historical events and information in this context. A uniform paradigm is essential to structure our historical knowledge, in this matter, I believe that ancient nations across the world had worked on these bases to prove their existence to further generations. Scientific, architectural, religious and historical findings discovered and created by various ancient societies were either written, sculptured, or translated into artistic forms of useful content to send a messagethrough time about their experiences and knowledges. This can be seen on the walls of the Egyptian temples, monuments and statues, which could be a sort of documentation of their knowledges, despite the fact that these knowledges can’t be always reliable to us because of the partially wrong beliefs of these nations, the process of registration of these beliefs and knowledges indicates a human need to save information on uniform bases, and that’s an example of a structural protocol and a uniform documentation for information and knowledgesthrough history of mankind. Another examples on this matter could be detected in the Greek history, philosophical expressions, scientific discoveries and human manners had been discussed in the aspect of reason and evidence, relating to a useful knowledge in a step by step system, firstly, the idea is presented by a thinker or a philosopher to a certain community of a higher board related to the presented idea, then an evidenceor an example is examined and discussed, and the final result is published to the public and the process of documentation keeps this new knowledge for public usage. This all comes under the term of a uniform system or a protocol to obtain knowledge. On the other hand, many would debate that historical information can’t be true all the time, even if it was documented and proven, for a compelling cause, which is the probability of losing reliability in historical information because of the conflicts among previous nations. Many would discuss that wars and other political conflicts within the same society could alter historical information and even erase it from the existence,therefore, shaping a model structure of uniformity in obtaining knowledge is declined. For an example, the siege and sack of Baghdad -the capital of the Abbasid caliphate- in 1258 practiced by the horrific Mongolian barbaric forces led by Hulagu Khan,demolished libraries containing hundreds of thousands of documents and scientific books written over Islamic eras were burnt to ashes alongside religious discussions papers and other cultural Islamic knowledges. The same thing happened with theAlexandria library, which was destroyed several times, the most tragic one was the destruction by Julies Cesar in his campaign against Egypt, thus, disappearing knowledges and lost historical information was buried in a tragic way. This led to a confusion relating the reliability of the remains of survived knowledges, along with the fallacies spread by the invasion forces and the propaganda told to the new brainwashed generations of occupied cities. In the conclusion of my essay, I’d like to state that gaining or obtaining knowledge is a cumulative process, practiced by early nations, and the process of discovering knowledge and transferring it to others was possible due to the documentation of information and the development of the learning techniques, molding a method of learning by setting evidence and examples to the interested communities, thus, Conclusive answers to our questions about our universe or about ourselves are disclosed bya uniform method of obtaining information and knowledges, expanding our conscious to a higher level by taking a step by step protocol to verify our knowledges, But again, Human factor could alter these methods in the favor of the personal agendas and the destructive intentions caused by conflicts and political dominance. In the end, It’s about time to put our differences away and build a worldwide system capable of giving us answers about anything.