According to scientific management thought, communication existed to facilitate the leader’s command and control over the institution through vertical, formal channels. In fact, Rogers has pointed out that communication was to be formal, hierarchical and planned; its purpose was to get the work done, to increase efficiency. It was viewed as one-sided, vertical i.e., top-down and task-related. The only concession to a need for feedback was a periodic progress report on the status of work-progress.
In a sense, messages moved up the hierarchy through a series of whispers, but down the hierarchy through a series of loudspeakers. In other words, communication, according to this theory, involves giving directions or commands by the principal to the teachers (top-down) and the teacher’s in turn supplying information about the progress of their work to the principal. Thus, communication, according to this theory, is the transmission of knowledge. (b) Human Relations Theory of Communication:This theory originated following the Hawthorne studies in the 1930s. Here, efforts were made to understand the distortions and gaps that frequently existed between the messages sent and those received.
Not only were characteristics of senders and receivers studied, such as their motivation, perspectives, stereotypes and non-verbal cues, but also the manner in which these informal characteristics affected the behaviours of both senders and receivers. The words ‘common’, ‘commune’ and ‘communication’ have the same etymological root. In this context, communication can be defined as the exchange of meaning. Such an exchange, however, necessitates that knowledge about the psycho-social make-up of the sender and the receiver be acquired. Both the sender and the receiver are composed of a complex mix of hopes, biases, prejudices, expectations, values and pre-occupations. (c) Open System Theory of Communication:Here, communication can be defined as the exchange of messages and meaning between an institution and its environment as well as between its networks of interdependent subsystems. Communication is the glue that holds an institution together and brings harmony among its parts.
Communication cannot be conceptualized solely as a process of transmitting messages between senders and receivers. It can only be understood in relation to the social system in which it takes place