(b) Students’ evaluation; (c) Superior’s evaluation; and (d) Peer evaluation. This form of obtaining feedback from all the possible sources is known as “360-degree feedback”. This form of PA can be very beneficial to a manager since it eliminates biases and prejudices and gives them a much wider range of performance related feedback as compared to traditional evaluation by one’s superior. In this kind of multiple-rate system, it is necessary that evaluators are adequately trained.
Training is generally designed to reduce rating errors by increasing the raters’ ability and skills of observation and categorization. (2) Dimensions of Performance:The key performance areas for a teacher are as follows: (a) Planning and preparation of teaching. (b) Classroom management. (c) Task orientation. (d) Updating knowledge. (e) Rapport with students, colleagues, non-teaching staff and superior.
(f) Communication skills. (g) Participation in institutional activities. (h) Personal characteristics, (initiative, sense of responsibility, emotional resilience, punctuality, confidence, integrity, appearance, enthusiasm, persistence, self-discipline, reliability, consistency, credibility, etc ) (i) Research output, (for higher education). (j) Extension activities.
(k) Use of teaching technology in class. (l) Publication of papers and/or books, (for higher education) (m) Successfully guiding Ph.D.
students, (for higher education) The key performance areas for an educational manager are as follows: (a) Identification of Aims and Objectives, Development of Polices. (b) Command over professional knowledge. (c) Rapport with subordinates and students. (d) Communication. (e) Resource management.
(f) Staff development. (g) Curriculum development. (h) Time management. (i) Conflict management. (j) Pro-activity. (k) Creating a congenial climate. (l) Decision-making.
(m) Ability to plan. (n) Ability to organize. (o) Ability to supervise and control. (p) Change and innovation. (3) Frequency of Appraisals:In order to reap the benefits of PA, an institution should conduct performance appraisal on a regular basis, typically, once a year irrespective of an employee’s present level of performance, the nature of the task, the nature of employment (i.e.
, temporary, on probation, or confirmed), the length of experience or an employee’s need for feedback on performance. Annual PAs are convenient for administrative purposes such as record-keeping and predictions. In some institutions of higher learning, PA is done every term till the faculty is confirmed. If the locus of control of employees is external, they may not be receptive to PA at all, believing that their actions are a function of luck, destiny, fate or God’s blessings or otherwise.