3. RESEARCH DESIGN:

A. INTRODUCTION:

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Resistance against disease increasing day by day which lead to increase the necessity of new drugs discoveries. New researches suggests that new drugs isolates from natural sources are so much important for green heath management and to minimizing the toxicological as well as environmental risks produces by synthetic antimicrobial drugs (Prabha Devi, 2013).

Sponges produces many forms of biological active compounds which possess antimicrobial activities. Researchers isolated many compounds from marine sponges as imuno-modulatory compound but identification from freshwater sponge are still lacking.

Extraction of immune-modulatory compound from natural sources i.e. from fresh water sponge and testing its biological activity against fish pathogens may help in discovery of new drug which tip its significance in field of biotechnology. Isolation from natural sources may leads lowering the contamination, environment risks and may also lead in reduction of food insecurity as the drug for aquaculture minimize the ratio of fishes to get infected and die. World’s large population is depending on fishes as their food, either develop country like Japan or poor African countries.

B. RESEARCH QUESTION:

• Replacement of exciting antibacterial and antifungal drugs with more effective and natural ones has become main question to address.
• Is fresh water sponges help freshwater fishes to increases its immunity to fight against different bacterial and fungal infections?

C. HYPOTHESIS:

Marine sponges contains variety of bioactive compounds which having immune-modulatory activities. Fresh water sponges may also contain these type of bioactive compounds having antibacterial and antifungal activities which may help fresh water fishes to fight against infections and aid them in increasing their immunity.
Aims to find antibacterial and antifungal activities from fresh water sponges.

? SUPPLEMENTARY QUESTIONS:

• From where we can isolate bioactive compound?
From fresh water sponge Spongilla. Spp
(Porifera: Demospongiae: Spongillidae a common variety of freshwater sponge).

• Why fresh water sponges?
Marine sponges are known to produces many metabolites processing various bioactive activities, some are also went for clinical trials. Whereas fresh sponges is less studied group having relatively limited information.

• Will fresh Sponges help more than marine sponges?
Technical problems associated with cultivation and harvesting large amounts of marine sponges. Whereas Fresh water sponges are easy to cultivate and grow and harvest artificially as we can grow them in aquariums.

• What type of bacteria infect fishes? And what disease they cause?
1) Aeromonas. salmonicida causes Furunculosis forms boil-like lesions or may also appear dark in coloration at the base of their fins.
2) Flavobacterium. Branchiophilum causes gill disease, leading to gill proliferation in fishes.
3) Pseudomonas.spp and vibrio.spp can cause frayed fins with hemorrhaging at the base of the fin, sores, lethargy, and swelling of the belly.

• What type of fungus infect fishes? And what disease they cause?
1) Exophiala. spp are ubiquitous yeast and are distinct olive to black-brown color lesions on fishes.
2) Saprolegnia.spp freshwater specie of fungi which causes cottony/woolly, white growth on the skin, or gills, or on fish eggs.
3) Aphanomyces. Invadans causes deep ulcerative orange to red lesions on skin scrapes.

D. OBJECTIVE OF RESEARCH:
Considering the importance of ecofriendly compounds having antimicrobial activities as synthetic drugs produces harm full effects on both environment and health. As a green health management, popularity of drugs drive from natural sources is important.
In addition, the evolving resistance of microorganisms to existing antibiotics is becoming major issue not only for humans but also for aquaculture. This threat is increasing day by day causing immense economic losses resulting in food insecurity. Hence, replacement of existing antibiotics with more operational and safer ones has become an important subject to discuss.

3. RESEARCH DESIGN:

A. INTRODUCTION:

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For You For Only $13.90/page!


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Resistance against disease increasing day by day which lead to increase the necessity of new drugs discoveries. New researches suggests that new drugs isolates from natural sources are so much important for green heath management and to minimizing the toxicological as well as environmental risks produces by synthetic antimicrobial drugs (Prabha Devi, 2013).

Sponges produces many forms of biological active compounds which possess antimicrobial activities. Researchers isolated many compounds from marine sponges as imuno-modulatory compound but identification from freshwater sponge are still lacking.

Extraction of immune-modulatory compound from natural sources i.e. from fresh water sponge and testing its biological activity against fish pathogens may help in discovery of new drug which tip its significance in field of biotechnology. Isolation from natural sources may leads lowering the contamination, environment risks and may also lead in reduction of food insecurity as the drug for aquaculture minimize the ratio of fishes to get infected and die. World’s large population is depending on fishes as their food, either develop country like Japan or poor African countries.

B. RESEARCH QUESTION:

• Replacement of exciting antibacterial and antifungal drugs with more effective and natural ones has become main question to address.
• Is fresh water sponges help freshwater fishes to increases its immunity to fight against different bacterial and fungal infections?

C. HYPOTHESIS:

Marine sponges contains variety of bioactive compounds which having immune-modulatory activities. Fresh water sponges may also contain these type of bioactive compounds having antibacterial and antifungal activities which may help fresh water fishes to fight against infections and aid them in increasing their immunity.
Aims to find antibacterial and antifungal activities from fresh water sponges.

? SUPPLEMENTARY QUESTIONS:

• From where we can isolate bioactive compound?
From fresh water sponge Spongilla. Spp
(Porifera: Demospongiae: Spongillidae a common variety of freshwater sponge).

• Why fresh water sponges?
Marine sponges are known to produces many metabolites processing various bioactive activities, some are also went for clinical trials. Whereas fresh sponges is less studied group having relatively limited information.

• Will fresh Sponges help more than marine sponges?
Technical problems associated with cultivation and harvesting large amounts of marine sponges. Whereas Fresh water sponges are easy to cultivate and grow and harvest artificially as we can grow them in aquariums.

• What type of bacteria infect fishes? And what disease they cause?
1) Aeromonas. salmonicida causes Furunculosis forms boil-like lesions or may also appear dark in coloration at the base of their fins.
2) Flavobacterium. Branchiophilum causes gill disease, leading to gill proliferation in fishes.
3) Pseudomonas.spp and vibrio.spp can cause frayed fins with hemorrhaging at the base of the fin, sores, lethargy, and swelling of the belly.

• What type of fungus infect fishes? And what disease they cause?
1) Exophiala. spp are ubiquitous yeast and are distinct olive to black-brown color lesions on fishes.
2) Saprolegnia.spp freshwater specie of fungi which causes cottony/woolly, white growth on the skin, or gills, or on fish eggs.
3) Aphanomyces. Invadans causes deep ulcerative orange to red lesions on skin scrapes.

D. OBJECTIVE OF RESEARCH:
Considering the importance of ecofriendly compounds having antimicrobial activities as synthetic drugs produces harm full effects on both environment and health. As a green health management, popularity of drugs drive from natural sources is important.
In addition, the evolving resistance of microorganisms to existing antibiotics is becoming major issue not only for humans but also for aquaculture. This threat is increasing day by day causing immense economic losses resulting in food insecurity. Hence, replacement of existing antibiotics with more operational and safer ones has become an important subject to discuss.

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