3.3 determine the relationship between the risk factor


3 A case control design is a study that compares patientswho have a disease or outcome of cases with patient that do not have thespecific disease (controls), and looks back with hindsight to compare howfrequently the exposure to a risk factor is present in each group to determinethe relationship between the risk factor and the disease. These types ofstudies are observational because no help or intervention is given to alter thecourse of the disease. The goal is to retrospectively determine the exposure tothe risk factor of interest from each of the two groups of individuals beingstudied, which would be the case and the control. Some advantages of casecontrol studies are that it is good for studying rate conditions or diseases,less time is needed to conduct an experiment because the specific condition ordisease has already occurred, it lets you look at all the risks, and it answersquestions that can’t be answered through other study designs. An example ofthis would be a study to investigate if the exposure to zinc oxide is a moreeffective skin cancer prevention measure. This study involved comparing a groupof former lifeguards that had skin cancer on their noses and cheeks to a groupof lifeguards without cancer.

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They then assessed their past exposure to zincoxide and/or absorbent sunscreen lotions. Cohort studies are a type of medical research that is usedto look at the cause of a disease and link them to being risk factors that leadto health outcomes. These look at data that already exists and try to identifyrisk factors based on that. These are usually prospective studies that gatherdata going forwards, rather than retrospective Cohort studies that look at dataalready collected. An example of Cohort studies would be a study consideringthe factors that affect the health illness of populations.

 3.6 The primary methods of collecting data are self-reports,observations, and biological measurements. Whether a patient decided toparticipate in the research is what differs the three methods.

Self-reports aresurveys and interviews that are done in different settings that have differentvariables and controls. Observations are used to gather data on physical datasuch as characteristics that are sense upon observing the patient. Biologicalmeasurement is separated into 3 different subjects.

Biophysical assessmentsmeasure the physical characteristics. Biochemical methods measure chemicalconstituent in the fluids of the body. Microbiological methods evaluate microorganismin bodily fluids that are present in the individual.


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